Summary of Cellular Respiration

  1. Flow
    • a.     
    • Glucoseà
    • NADH (or FADH2)à ETCà proton-motive
    • forceà
    • ATP
  2. Output
    • i.     
    • Glycolysis: 2 ATP

    • ii.     
    • CAC: 2 ATP
  3. Output for oxiddative phosphorylation
    1.      Each NADH contributes about three, but we cannot state an exact number
  4. Why can't we state the exact number?
    • a.      Phosphorylation and the redox reactions are not directly coupled to each other, so the ratio of the number of NADH to the number of ATP is not whole
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1 NADH results in 10 H+ being transported, but the exact number that must reenter the matrix via ATP synthase to generate one ATP is uncertain
    • 1.      May be 2.5
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Also, FADH2, due to entering the ETC later produces 1.5 ATP molecules
    • b.      ATP yield varies slightly depending on type of shuttle used to transport electrons from the cytosol into the mitochondrion.
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Inner membrane is impermeable to NADH, so it is segregated from machinery of oxidative phosphorylation
    • 1.      Two electrons of NADH must be conveyed by one of several electron shuttle systems
    • a.      NAD+ (2.5 ATP) or FAD (1.5 ATP)
    • c.       Proton-motive force generated by the redox reactions drives other kinds of work
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    •                                                           iv.       The rest of the energy stored in glucose is lost as heat
  6. Adaptation in hibernating mammals 
    __ is made up of cells packed full of __
    a.      The inner mitochondrial membrane contains a channel protein called the __, which allows protons to flow back down their concentration gradient without generating ATP
                                                                                                                                          i.      Activation of these proteins in hibernating mammals results in ongoing __ of stored fuel stores (fats), generating heat without __
    • Brown fat
    • mitochondria
    • uncoupling protein
    • oxidation
    • ATP
Card Set
Summary of Cellular Respiration