The state level of anlaysis does not challenge the claim that states are ______ actors, but it adds that their internal ______ that matter most in determining overall _______ of foreign policy ________.
primary; characters; patters; behavior
The ________, or state, level of analysis is a _____-______ approach.
The systemic level of analysis is a _______-______ approach viewing the behavior from the perspective of the ________ system.
Why do we resort to this level of analysis?
The theoretical value of this level of analysis is that the second level helps identify how _______ politics influence the state's ______ internationally.
Scholars look for "Where all the action is"; what is meant by this?
The variables that have the greatest influence on outcomes in International politics.
State level of analysis explanation of WWII
WWII caused by the _____ and ______ regimes in Germany, Japan, and Italy.
What did these regimes compel them to undertake in order to pacify the oppressed people living under them?
Aggressive foreign policies
What is the logic behind this?
If the leaders did not create external enemies for the people to fight against, the people would focus on how oppressive their regimes were and would eventually revolt.
What kind of regime is an explanation of WWII?
______ factors and German wounded _____ _____.
State level of analysis
The factors examined by scholars when it comes to the state level of analysis is ______ types, ______ or ______ states, and ______ characteristics.
regime; weak; strong; cultural
Weak states are those who love in ______ neighborhoods, such as Germany or France, and those who live in more ______ surroundings, such as Germany or France.
What was part of the reason we were latecomers to WWII?
Our benign surroundings.
List the cultural characteristics. (3 things)
The historical legacy of the state
The religious or social traditions
Economic and geographic nature of the state itself
Explanations derived from the State level of analysis
American intervention in Iraq as a function of the ________ quality of US foreign policy
The US has always had an _________ streak in its foregin policy which wanted to see "bad guys" out of the __________ __________.
idealist; international system
Who was one of these guys?
What does the US have a drive to do?
To remake the world in it's own image.
When is the job of US foreign policy done?
When all states are democratic and all nations have free market economies.
Those subsribing to this level also look at
Who looks at electoral politics? Why?
Bruce Russet. Because under electoral pressure policymakers can resort to war.
Who looks at special interests?
Special interests have significant ________ for foreign policy;
free trade tends to hurt ________ ______ and benefit _________;
low-skilled workers; capitalists
political _______ often develop along the lines of ______ interests;
Foreign economic policies depend partly on rivalry between _______ groups (given an example);
labor groups; labor vs. capital
Domestic political institutions are also looked at because they shape which interests are ________ in the policymaking process.
True/False: The nature of the institutions do not matter. If false, why?
False. They do matter because they determine who can declare war and who can stop war.
Internal Characteristics of States
What is the argument made about poverty/ level of economic development?
The argument is that most warlike states have been poor and, therefore, it is poverty or lack of economic development breeds war.
What evidence supports this?
The fact that this pattern persists today, as almost all of the world's 35 intersta and internal wars are taking place in the 3rd world.
What is the weakness of the poverty argument?
Most impoverished countires are generally the least prone to start wars, as they lack the military or economic resources to do so.
What does IR research suggest about impoverished countries that begin to develop economically?
They can afford to acquire armaments and pay their troops.
What is the claim that challenge the weakness challenge?
That after sustained periods of economic growth, countries are more likely to initiate foreign wars.
Variations of domestic Marxist explanations
What do marxist theories of war argue about capitalist economies?
That they are inherently war like and conflict prone.
For what reasons are they inherently war like?
Because they need to conquer other lands to secure markets, cheap labor and access to raw materials.
What Marxists in particular makes this argument? (2 people)
Lenin and Trotsky
What is Lenin's domestic explanation of imperialism/WWI?
That it is the solution for the domestic economic crisis created by capitalism.
Who is the center and who are the periphery?
The center are the rich and the periphery are the poor
What theorists share the Marxist claim that capitalist states use imperialism to make smaller and weaker states and resources in the Third World dependent vassals?
What happens to the weaker state when the capitalist leaves leaves?
The state dissappears.
Who are the comprador bourgeoisie?
The class that survives only through attachement to the core. They make money at the expense of the poor.
The challenge to dependency theories is that capitalist states are less likely want war because it gets in the way of doing _______, of the ______ _____ ______, and disrupts _______, ______ and generates ________ and _______ instability.
business; global supply chain; markets; trade; political; economic
Optimism and pessimism of the Second level
If "good" states and "bad' states maker a difference, how can "bad" states become "good"?
By becoming "liberal" democracies, socialists, or capitalists.
The Marxist solution to war claims that the "_______ ______" of the states leads to the elimination of war.
_________ government claims that the interests of the _______ class is incompatible with the international ______ conflict!
Socialists; working; military
What is the solution to this?
Abolishing capitalism and replacing it with socialism, since the issue is not in the state but in capitalism.
The Liberal View of the State
Liberals say that the stae is ______, but not _______.
The sate is a _____, involving _____ interest;
reflective of ________ and _______ interests;
repository of multiple and changing _______ interests;
State's response determined by _______ forces more than _______ challenges.
The Realist View of the State
The state is an _______ , _______ actor;
constrained by the _______ of the international system
guided by a ________ interest define in terms of ________.
The state's response bypasses ______ forces
Domestic forces become ______ as far as determining response.
What is the state's main interest?
True/False: Power is all that matters. If false, why?
False. Power is important, but ideas also matter.
The Radical View of the State
According to _________ marxists, the state us the executing agent of the ________;
influenced by pressures from the ________ class.
According to the _________ maxist, the state is ______ by the international system.
True/ False: In either case, real sovereignty is not possible.
What is the driving force behind any decision?
How is foreign policy made?
From the inside out.
Constructivist View of the State
The state is a ________ constructed entity;
the repository of _______ interests that _____ over time;
shaped by international ______ that change _________;
influenced by changing _______ interests that shape and reshape _______.
socialized by ______ and _______.
What are the three approaches of domestic level of analysis?
The statist approach treats the state as the _______ institution in the _______-______ process.
Executive Legislative Relations in authoritarian states
In most authoritarian states, legislatures do little more than "_______ ________" foreign policies made by ________ leaders.
rubber stamp; dictatorial
What are some examples of this?
The Reichstag under Hitler
The Supreme Soviet's subservience to the ruling Communist Party
The Iraqi Parliament under Saddam
What did nuclear power result in?
In the President being the individual who declares war.
Executive-Legislative Relations in Democratic states
Legislative ______ on ________ authority are _______ features of most Democratic societies.
constraints; executive; inherent
What are some examples of this in the U.S.?
The power to delcare war and the power of the purse.
True/False: In most democratic states, legislatures participate in foreign policy decisions or exercise oversight over foreign relations. If false, why?
Many legislatures must approve or ratify _______ and can reject or demand amendments to _____ to protect or promote domestic interest.
Legislative _______ to ratify treaties can seriously weaken or undermine the agreements or institutions that treaties were intended to ______.
Electoral systems and calendars can affect the ____ and _____ of foreign policy ________.
timing; content; initiatives
It does this because policy positions are ____ by elections, and unsound policies are dictated by ______ elections.
What is an example of this currently?
Criticism towards Obama for not intevening in Syria now.
Electoal politics and Foreign Policy
The implications of states with fixed foreign policy is that executives avoid ________ policies, settle on flashy or important trips and _________.
Governments without Fixed Terms
When do decision makers call elections?
At opportune times.
What would one of the opportune times be? Give an example.
After a successful military campaign, such as Thatcher in the UK after the 1982 Falklands War
The _______ approach suggests that foreign policy reflects the _______ of whichever groups or forces in society exert the most influence over ________ _______.
societal; influence; policy making
What can this type of politics be called?
Interest group politics.
Interest groups are concerned with __________ __________, and work on influencing _________ __________.
international affairs; foreign policy
Who plays a crucial role in shaping and mobilizing public opinion?
In what century did media become a factor?
When is ideology important in a society?
If it is a part of the majority of society.
Ideology plays two roles in the _______ ______ process;
Mass ideologies must exist to _______ the roles played by foreign-policy makers;
the ideologies of foreign-policy-makers themselves let them _____ the world and ideologies act as ______ to policy.
The central belief systems on which states and groups in society base their actions.
What does ideology often supply the state with?
The visions, values, and ideals of a state's foreign policy.
Forms of ideological influence
What do democratic states frame their policies in?
What is one of these ideologies?
Protecting democracy at home and abroad.
What concepts did revolutionary France spread throughout Europe?
Concepts of liberalism, egalitarianism, and nationalism.
What was a prominent feature of the Cold War?
What countries supported Marxist "national liberation movements" throughout the Cold War?