The Second Level of Analysis Part II

  1. State Level of Analysis
  2. The state level of anlaysis does not challenge the claim that states are ______ actors, but it adds that their internal ______ that matter most in determining overall _______ of foreign policy ________.
    primary; characters; patters; behavior
  3. The ________, or state, level of analysis is a _____-______ approach.
    reductionist; bottom-up
  4. The systemic level of analysis is a _______-______ approach viewing the behavior from the perspective of the ________ system.
    top-down; international
  5. Why do we resort to this level of analysis?
  6. The theoretical value of this level of analysis is that the second level helps identify how _______ politics influence the state's ______ internationally.
    domestic; behavior
  7. Scholars look for "Where all the action is"; what is meant by this?
    The variables that have the greatest influence on outcomes in International politics.
  8. State level of analysis explanation of WWII
  9. WWII caused by the _____ and ______ regimes in Germany, Japan, and Italy.
    Nazi; fascist
  10. What did these regimes compel them to undertake in order to pacify the oppressed people living under them?
    Aggressive foreign policies
  11. What is the logic behind this?
    If the leaders did not create external enemies for the people to fight against, the people would focus on how oppressive their regimes were and would eventually revolt.
  12. What kind of regime is an explanation of WWII?
  13. ______ factors and German wounded _____ _____.
    Economic; national
  14. State level of analysis
  15. The factors examined by scholars when it comes to the state level of analysis is ______ types,  ______ or ______ states, and ______ characteristics.
    regime; weak; strong; cultural
  16. Weak states are those who love in ______ neighborhoods, such as Germany or France, and those who live in more ______ surroundings, such as Germany or France.
    rough; benign
  17. What was part of the reason we were latecomers to WWII?
    Our benign surroundings.
  18. List the cultural characteristics. (3 things)
    • The historical legacy of the state
    • The religious or social traditions
    • Economic and geographic nature of the state itself
  19. Explanations derived from the State level of analysis
  20. American intervention in Iraq as a function of the ________ quality of US foreign policy
  21. The US has always had an _________ streak in its foregin policy which wanted to see "bad guys" out of the __________ __________.
    idealist; international system
  22. Who was one of these guys?
  23. What does the US have a drive to do?
    To remake the world in it's own image.
  24. When is the job of US foreign policy done?
    When all states are democratic and all nations have free market economies.
  25. Those subsribing to this level also look at
  26. Who looks at electoral politics? Why?
    Bruce Russet. Because under electoral pressure policymakers can resort to war.
  27. Who looks at special interests?
    Ronald Rogowski
  28. Special interests have significant ________ for foreign policy;
  29. free trade tends to hurt ________ ______ and benefit _________;
    low-skilled workers; capitalists
  30. political _______ often develop along the lines of ______ interests;
    cleavages; economic
  31. Foreign economic policies depend partly on rivalry between _______ groups (given an example);
    labor groups; labor vs. capital
  32. Domestic political institutions are also looked at because they shape which interests are ________ in the policymaking process.
  33. True/False: The nature of the institutions do not matter. If false, why?
    False. They do matter because they determine who can declare war and who can stop war.
  34. Internal Characteristics of States
  35. What is the argument made about poverty/ level of economic development?
    The argument is that most warlike states have been poor and, therefore, it is poverty or lack of economic development breeds war.
  36. What evidence supports this?
    The fact that this pattern persists today, as almost all of the world's 35 intersta and internal wars are taking place in the 3rd world.
  37. What is the weakness of the poverty argument?
    Most impoverished countires are generally the least prone to start wars, as they lack the military or economic resources to do so.
  38. What does IR research suggest about impoverished countries that begin to develop economically?
    They can afford to acquire armaments and pay their troops.
  39. What is the claim that challenge the weakness challenge?
    That after sustained periods of economic growth, countries are more likely to initiate foreign wars.
  40. Variations of domestic Marxist explanations
  41. What do marxist theories of war argue about capitalist economies?
    That they are inherently war like and conflict prone.
  42. For what reasons are they inherently war like?
    Because they need to conquer other lands to secure markets, cheap labor and access to raw materials.
  43. What Marxists in particular makes this argument? (2 people)
    Lenin and Trotsky
  44. What is Lenin's domestic explanation of imperialism/WWI?
    That it is the solution for the domestic economic crisis created by capitalism.
  45. Who is the center and who are the periphery?
    The center are the rich and the periphery are the poor
  46. What theorists share the Marxist claim that capitalist states use imperialism to make smaller and weaker states and resources in the Third World dependent vassals?
    Dependency theorists.
  47. What happens to the weaker state when the capitalist leaves leaves?
    The state dissappears.
  48. Who are the comprador bourgeoisie?
    The class that survives only through attachement to the core. They make money at the expense of the poor.
  49. The challenge to dependency theories is that capitalist states are less likely want war because it gets in the way of doing _______, of the ______ _____ ______, and disrupts _______, ______ and generates ________ and _______ instability.
    business; global supply chain; markets; trade; political; economic
  50. Optimism and pessimism of the Second level
  51. If "good" states and "bad' states maker a difference, how can "bad" states become "good"?
    By becoming "liberal" democracies, socialists, or capitalists.
  52. The Marxist solution to war claims that the "_______ ______" of the states leads to the elimination of war.
    withering away
  53. Revisionist arguments
  54. _________ government claims that the interests of the _______ class is incompatible with the international ______ conflict!
    Socialists; working; military
  55. What is the solution to this?
    Abolishing capitalism and replacing it with socialism, since the issue is not in the state but in capitalism.
  56. The Liberal View of the State
  57. Liberals say that the stae is ______, but not _______.
    sovereign; autonomous
  58. The sate is a _____, involving _____ interest;
    processs; contending
  59. reflective of ________ and _______ interests;
    governmental; societal
  60. repository of multiple and changing _______ interests;
  61. State's response determined by _______ forces more than _______ challenges.
    domestic; external
  62. The Realist View of the State
  63. The state is an _______ , _______ actor;
    autonomous; sovereign
  64. constrained by the _______ of the international system
  65. guided by a ________ interest define in terms of ________.
    national; power
  66. The state's response bypasses ______ forces
  67. Domestic forces become ______ as far as determining response.
  68. What is the state's main interest?
    National interest
  69. True/False: Power is all that matters. If false, why?
    False. Power is important, but ideas also matter.
  70. The Radical View of the State
  71. According to _________ marxists, the state us the executing agent of the ________;
    instrumental; bourgeoisie
  72. influenced by pressures from the ________ class.
  73. According to the _________ maxist, the state is ______ by the international system.
    structural; constrained
  74. True/ False: In either case, real sovereignty is not possible.
  75. What is the driving force behind any decision?
    Economic goals.
  76. How is foreign policy made?
    From the inside out.
  77. Constructivist View of the State
  78. The state is a ________ constructed entity;
  79. the repository of _______ interests that _____ over time;
    national; change
  80. shaped by international ______ that change _________;
    norms; preferences
  81. influenced by changing _______ interests that shape and reshape _______.
    national; identities
  82. socialized by ______ and _______.
    IGOs; NGOs
  83. What are the three approaches of domestic level of analysis?
    • Statist
    • Societal
    • Combination
  84. The statist approach treats the state as the _______ institution in the _______-______ process.
    dominant; decision-making
  85. Executive Legislative Relations in authoritarian states
  86. In most authoritarian states, legislatures do little more than "_______ ________" foreign policies made by ________ leaders.
    rubber stamp; dictatorial
  87. What are some examples of this?
    • The Reichstag under Hitler
    • The Supreme Soviet's subservience to the ruling Communist Party
    • The Iraqi Parliament under Saddam
  88. What did nuclear power result in?
    In the President being the individual who declares war.
  89. Executive-Legislative Relations in Democratic states
  90. Legislative ______ on ________ authority are _______ features of most Democratic societies.
    constraints; executive; inherent
  91. What are some examples of this in the U.S.?
    The power to delcare war  and the power of the purse.
  92. True/False: In most democratic states, legislatures participate in foreign policy decisions or exercise oversight over foreign relations. If false, why?
  93. Many legislatures must approve or ratify _______ and can reject or demand amendments to _____ to protect or promote domestic interest.
    treaties; agreements
  94. Legislative _______ to ratify treaties can seriously weaken or undermine the agreements or institutions that treaties were intended to ______.
    refusal; produce
  95. Electoral systems and calendars can affect the ____ and _____ of foreign policy ________.
    timing; content; initiatives
  96. It does this because policy positions are ____ by elections, and unsound policies are dictated by ______ elections.
    inspired; winning
  97. What is an example of this currently?
    Criticism towards Obama for not intevening in Syria now.
  98. Electoal politics and Foreign Policy
  99. The implications of states with fixed foreign policy is that executives avoid ________ policies, settle on flashy or important trips and _________.
    risky; policies
  100. Governments without Fixed Terms
  101. When do decision makers call elections?
    At opportune times.
  102. What would one of the opportune times be? Give an example.
    After a successful military campaign, such as Thatcher in the UK after the 1982 Falklands War
  103. The _______ approach suggests that foreign policy reflects the _______ of whichever groups or forces in society exert the most influence over ________ _______.
    societal; influence; policy making
  104. What can this type of politics be called?
    Interest group politics.
  105. Interest Groups
  106. Interest groups are concerned with __________ __________, and work on influencing _________ __________.
    international affairs; foreign policy
  107. Who plays a crucial role in shaping and mobilizing public opinion?
    The media
  108. In what century did media become a factor?
  109. Other Approaches
  110. Ideology
  111. When is ideology important in a society?
    If it is a part of the majority of society.
  112. Ideology plays two roles in the _______ ______ process;
    foreign policy
  113. Mass ideologies must exist to _______ the roles played by foreign-policy makers;
  114. the ideologies of foreign-policy-makers themselves let them _____ the world and ideologies act as ______ to policy.
    grasp; guides
  115. Define ideology.
    The central belief systems on which states and groups in society base their actions.
  116. What does ideology often supply the state with?
    The visions, values, and ideals of a state's foreign policy.
  117. Forms of ideological influence
  118. What do democratic states frame their policies in?
    Democratic ideologies.
  119. What is one of these ideologies?
    Protecting democracy at home and abroad.
  120. What concepts did revolutionary France spread throughout Europe?
    Concepts of liberalism, egalitarianism, and nationalism.
  121. What was a prominent feature of the Cold War?
    Ideological conflict
  122. What countries supported Marxist "national liberation movements" throughout the Cold War?
    Soviet Russia and Communist China.
Card Set
The Second Level of Analysis Part II
The Second Level of Analysis