1. seasons determined by earth's tilt (23.5 deg.)
    if North Hem. tilted to the Sun -> summer highest solar radiation
    Solar radiation
  2. 2 main gases in the air
    Nitrogen & Oxygen
  3. percentage of each type of gas?
    • 78% nitrogen (can't be used; only for planets to convert to use)
    • 21% Oxygen
    • 1% left are trace gases (CO2 , CH4)
  4. divided into 4 years
    function: to protect Earth's surface from radiation, to keep planet warm
    trace gases
  5. 1st layer
    • Trophosphere!
    • -we live here
    • -weather occurs
    • -0 - 10/15 km up
    • -go up -> temp. drops
  6. cool air on top, warm air below
    normal conditions
  7. cool air on bottom, warm air on top
    • temperature inversion
    • -cold air (heavy) -> traps pollutants (air pollution)
  8. Case Study: London Smog 1952
    • Death of 12,000
    • -cold fog in London -> Londoners began burning more coal to keep warm
    • -air pollution trapped by a thermal inversion (cold air below, warm air on top)
  9. -metro area where temp. is hotter in city vs. outside city
    -caused by buildings blocking cooler air
    -also by asphalt and cement absorbing heat during day and releasing it at night
    -little veggies evaporation causes cities to remain warmer than the surrounding country side
    Urban Heat Island
  10. 2nd layer
    • Stratosphere!
    • -above trophosphere 
    • -10-50 km up
    • -go up -> increase in temp.
    • -contains ozone (absorb UV light)
  11. -absorb UV rays produced from sun
    -acts as a shield to prevent exposure
    The Ozone Layer

    Stratospheric Ozone: made up of 3 Oxygens, O3
  12. 3rd Layer
    • Mesosphere!
    • above stratosphere
    • coldest layer
    • -50-80 km up
    • Go up -> temp. falls
  13. 4th layer!
    • Thermosphere!
    • -80-480 km up
    • -go up -> temp rise
  14. -found in between layers; temp. are constant
  15. found in between troposphere and stratosphere (jet stream)
  16. -created when differences in air pressure
    -movement of air from high pressure to low pressure areas
  17. differs in troposphere
    air pressure
  18. -force exerted on a unit of area of a surface
  19. warm air = ?
    cold air = ?
    • light!
    • heavy!
  20. -controlled by earth's rotation
    wind and ocean current direction
  21. because of earth's rotation, objects are deflected 
    -No. Hem. = right of equator
    -So. Hem = left of equator
    Coriolis Effect
  22. Global Conidtion where waters of tropical East Pacific are warm
    -Normal conidtions: trade winds blow west accross Pacific Ocean; warm water reaches Indonesia and causes rain
    -colder water replaces warm water in South America (upwelling)
    El Nino (ENSO) -> El Nino Southern Oscillation
  23. opposite of El Nino
    -cold air oscillations
    usually happen after an El Nino Year
    La Nina
  24. El Nino
    • CA = storms in E. Pacific, Lots of Rain (Hot water), migration of tropical orgs. (water if warmer now)
    • S. America = massive floods, mud slides, fisheries collapse (little upwelling)
    • S. Pacific = typhoons (coral bleaching)--> sensitive to heat
    • -Australia = extreme drought in E. Pacific, dust storms, fires
  25. -enter atmosphere directly
    • Primary pollutants
    • ex. CO2, NOx, SOx, particulates and Hydrocarbons
  26. -form due to chemical reaction that occur in air
    • secondary pollutants
    • ex. Trop. Ozone & Acid Rain
  27. effects of air pollution
    • -damages lungs
    • -reduces visibility
    • -corrodes materials such as plastic metals and stone
    • -contribute to global warming, acid rain and ozone depletion
  28. causes most air pollution 
    -energy fossil fuel: a fuel formed in earth from ancient plant or animal remains
    • burning fossil fuels 
    • ex. (C.O.N.) coal, oil natural gas
Card Set
air pollution