Review 7

  1. What is the purpose of the TATA box
    It is the promoter region for transcription initiation
  2. What are causes of increased EDV
    • Volume overload:
    • renal failure
    • CHF
    • saline infusion
  3. How do anal suppositories avoid 1st pass hepatic metabolism
    via entering the inferior and middle rectal veins which then enter systemic circulation
  4. What is Ergonvine
    Ergot alkaloid that constricts vascular smooth muscle via alpha and 5HT receptors
  5. Side effect of cholestyramine
    Increases hepatic production of TG and VLDL
  6. How does ASD present on ausculation
    wide splitting of S2 without variation upon inspiration
  7. Lightning neuro effects
    • peripheral nerve damage
    • seizures
    • confusion
    • respiratory arrest
    • autonomic dysfunction
  8. What is this:
    Fibrocalcific parietal pleura plaques in posterolateral midlung zones and over diaphragm
  9. Psammoma bodies in a brain lesion
    meningioma- arises from arachnoid villi
  10. Vitamin B 12 deficiency in spinal cord
    • Subacute combined degeneration:
    • Dorsal column
    • lateral corticospinal tract
    • Peripheral axons
  11. Acute tubular necrosis during the recovery stage
    Decreased K+, Mg+ PO4-, Ca2+
  12. What are Councilman bodies
    Apoptotic hepatocytic that shrink
  13. What is a cause of enterococcal endocarditis in the elderly
  14. What does the H. Influenza capsule contain
    polyribosyl-ribital- phosphate
  15. What does the posterior descending artery suppl
    The diaphragmatic surface of the heart
  16. Quervain thyroiditis presentation
    • thyrotoxicosis
    • tenderness over thyroid gland
    • increased ESR
    • decreased radioactive iodine
  17. In the lungs where is the goblet cell absent
    IN bronchioles, terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles
  18. Findings of Diastolic HF
    • nromal ejection fraction
    • normal ventricular volume
    • increased LVEDP
  19. How does pulmonary embolism present with regards to pH and gas levels
    hypoxemia with respiratory alkalosis
  20. Side effect of Isoniazid
    • Hepatotoxicity
    • hepatitis with fever, anorexia and nausea
  21. Confidence interval
    Mena +/- 1.96 (SD/square root of n)
  22. Why is methadone used for heroin addicts
    Long half life which leads to no withdrawal symptoms
  23. What is the ragged red fibers in mitochondrial disease
    abnormal mitochondria that has accumulated under the sarcolemma
  24. How does hydrocephalus in the infant lead to hypertonicity and hyperreflexia
    Stretching of the periventricular pyramidal tracts
  25. How does vagus nerve increase the work of breathing
    Ach -> M3 receptors -> bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion
  26. Where do intestinal carcinoids come from
    They come from enterochromaffin cells
  27. Pompe disease
    • a-1,4 glucosidase deficiency that leads to:
    • hepatomegaly
    • abnormal glycogen in the lysosomes
    • no hypoglycemia
    • hypotonia
  28. CMV special
    = herpes virus = envelope comes from the nuclear membrane
  29. Essential tremor
    • Difficulty holding position
    • better with alcohol

    TX: B blockrs
  30. What is rhinovirus
    • picornovirus = naked ss + RNA
    • + RNA = mRNA -> replication and protein synthesis in host cell
  31. Caspofungin
    echinocandin which blocks glucan synthesis of the cell wall
  32. Signs of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome
    • Eczema
    • recurrent infection
    • thrombocytopenia
  33. What is the antidote for doxorubicin
    Dexrazoxane -> to treat the radical formation injury leading to dilated cardiomyopathy
  34. What is characteristic of tuberculoid leprosy
    strong CD4+ T lymphocyte reaction
  35. Which one of these does not belong
    • Fructose-1-phosphate
    • It does not have to be metabolized by PFK 1 (slows down)
  36. Cheyne stokes
    • cyclic breathing with apnea
    • seen in CHF and neurological situations
  37. What controls sensation of pain in the anterior tongue
    mandibular nerve of CNV
  38. AML stain
    the Auer rods will stain peroxidase
  39. Schizoaffective
    • First schizophrenia
    • then presents with mood disorder symptoms that last at least 2 weeks at a time
  40. Propionyl-CoA to methlymalonyl CoA
    Propionyl CoA carboxylase
  41. Clozapine side effects
    agranulocytosis and seizures
  42. GLUT 4
    • on muscle and fat
    • responds to insulin
    • carrier mediated transport
  43. How does morphine work in relation to K+
    increases K efflux -> hyperpolarization
  44. What are the two segmented viruses
    • Orthomyxovirus
    • rotavirus
  45. What is paraneoplastic syndrome
    The tumor cell product leads to autoimmune disorder
  46. coccidioides immitus structure
    spherule with endospores in the body
  47. Phenelzine
    • MAO inhibitor for depressed
    • Leads to tyramine crisis when patient eats cheese or wine
  48. Meclizine and dimenhydrinate
    • H1 receptor blockers for motion sickness
    • Also have antimuscarinic effects
  49. Acyclovir activation
    • thymidine kinase -> monophosphate
    • then phosphorylated into triphosphate nucleotide
  50. Mitral stenosis and stroke
    Atrial enlargement leads to the development of mural thrombus
  51. Rifampin as prophylaxis
    To those exposed to H. influenzae and N. meningitidis
  52. Fatty acid oxidation pro and con in stable angina
    • Creates the most ATP
    • but uses the most O2
  53. P450 inducers
    • carbamazaepine
    • phenobarbital
    • phenytoin
    • Rifampin
    • Griseofulvin
  54. T cell ALL most likely to present with
    a mediastinal mass that can lead to dyspnea, dysphagia
  55. Hemochromatosis in the liver
    Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
  56. IAA in atria
    amyloid deposits in the atria form atrial natriuretic peptide
  57. MEN thyroid cancer
    • From calcitonin C secreting cells ->
    • Medullary thyroid cancer:
    • uniform polygonal or spindle shaped cells with extracellular amyloid deposit
  58. Death in pituitary apoplexy
    ACTH deficiency that leads to adrenocotical insufficiency
  59. CMV descriptor
    enveloped dsDNA
  60. Abetalipoproteinemia
    • Vill tip (intestinal mucosa) with clear cytoplasm
    • steatorrhea
  61. COX 2
    inducible via inflammation 72Kd weight enzyme
  62. Dipthteria toxin and exotoxin A of pseudomonas
    Ribosylate EF2 which leads to no protein synthesis
  63. SVC syndrome
    • dyspnea
    • cough
    • swelling of face, neck and upper extremity
    • headaches via increased ICP
  64. BRCA 1
    tumor suppressor gene that allwos for DNA repair
Card Set
Review 7
Review 7