1. Supports superior portion of bridge of nose
    Attatched to cartilages of distal protion of nose
    Nasal bones
  2. Form part of medial wall of orbit
    Lacrimal bone
  3. Form posterior portion of hard palate and contribute to floor of each orbit
    Palatine bone
  4. Contribute to rim and lateral wall of orbit
    Form part of cheekbone
    Zygomatic bone
  5. Support upper teeth
    Form inferior rim, lateral margins of external nares, upper jaw, and most of hard palate
  6. Create turbulence in air entering nasal cavity
    Increase surface area to promote warming and humidification of incoming air.
    Inferior nasal conchae
  7. Forms inferior portion of bony nasal septum
  8. Forms lower jaw
  9. Forms anterior portion of cranium and roof of orbits
    Frontal sinuses secrete mucus that helps flush nasal cavities
    Frontal Bone
  10. Forms part of floor of cranium
    Unites facial and cranial bones
    Acts as crossbridge to strengthen skull
  11. Forms anteromedial floor of cranium and roof of nasal cavity, and part of nasal septum and medial orbit wall
  12. Form part of superior and lateral surfaces of cranium
    Parietal bone
  13. Contriubtes to posterior, lateral, and inferior surfaces of cranium
    Occipital bone
  14. Helps stabilize vertebrae of neck
    External Occipital crest
  15. Form part of lateral wall of cranium
    Articulate with facial bones and form aarticulations with mandible
    Surround and protect sense organs of inner ear
    Attachment site for muscles closing jaw and moving head
    Temporal bones
  16. -Attachment for muscles that rotate or extend head
    Mastoid process
  17. -Attached to ligaments supporting hyoid bone and tendons of several muscles
    Styloid Process
  18. Forms anterior, superior portion of craniumProvides surface for attachment for facial muscles
    Frontal squama
  19. Support upper and lower teeth in mandible and maxillae
    Alveolar processes
  20. Attachment site for several facial muscles
    Mental protuberance
  21. Posterior, inferior corner of lower jaw
    Mandibular angle
  22. Articulates with zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch (cheekbone)
    Zygomatic process of temporal bone
  23. Ends at tympanic membrane
    External acoustic meatus
  24. Convex, irregular surface bordering squamous suture
    Squams part of temporal bone
  25. Mark attachment of temporalis muscle
    Superior and inferior temporal lines
  26. Variable in size and appearance
    frontal sinsuses
  27. Recess that supports/protects pituitary glandBony wall called sella turcica
    Hypophyseal fossa
  28. Encloses structures of inner ear and auditory ossicles in middle ear
    Petrous part of temporal bone
  29. Medial surface of petrous portion of temporal boneCarries blood vessels and nerves to inner earConveys facial nerve to stylomastoid foramen
    Internal acoustic meatus
  30. Lateral base of occipital condyle to inner surface of occipital bone near foramen magnumHypoglossal nerves pass through
    Hypoglossal canal
  31. Jagged slit between sphenoid and petrous portion of temporal boneContains cartilage and small arteries for inner cranium
    Foramen lacerum
  32. Passage of nerves for jaws
    Foramen ovale
  33. Passage of carotid artery
    Carotic canal
  34. Between occipital and temporal bonePassage of jugular vein
    Jugular foramen
  35. Posterior to base of styloid processPassage of facial nerve to facial muscles
    Stylomastoid foramen
  36. Connects cranial cavity and vertebral canal
    Foramen magnum
  37. Inferior surface of temporal boneArticulation site with mandible
    Mandibular fossa
  38. Articulation sites for first vertebra
    Occipital condyles
  39. Attachment sites for muscles and ligaments that stabilize head with neck vertebrae
    Inferior and superior nuchal lines
  40. Ridge that anchors blood vessels and membranes that stabilize brain
    Internal occipital crest
  41. Passage of optic nerves from eyes to brain
    Optic canals
  42. Extend horizontally anterior to sella turcica
    Lesser wings
  43. Extend laterallyForm part of cranial floor and posterior wall of orbit
    Greater wings
  44. Saddle-shaped enclosure
    Sella turcica
  45. Depression within sella turcicaOccupied by pituitary gland
    Hypophseal fossa
  46. Foramen spinosum (to orbit)
    Foramen ovale (to jaws and face)
    Foramen rotundum (to face)
    Superior orbital fissure (to cranial cavity membranes
    Foramina (penetrate greater wing and carry blood vessels and nerves)
  47. Forms anteromedial floor of cranium and roof of nasal cavityOlfactory foramina permit passage of olfactory nerves for sense of smell
    Cribiform plate
  48. Bony ridge that projects superior to cribiform plateAttachment of falx cerebri, which stabilizes brain
    Crista galli
  49. Interconnected air cells that connect to nasal cavity
    Ethmoidal labyrinth (sinus)
  50. Superior nasal conchae (projections)
    Middle nasal conchae (projections
    • Superior nasal conchae (projections)
    • Middle nasal conchae (projections
  51. Forms part of nasal septum
    Perpendicular plate
  52. Forms posterior portion of hard palate and contributes to floor of each orbit
  53. Forms posterior part of hard palate
    Horizontal plate
  54. Contains eye
    Formed by seven bones of the orbital complex
    1. Frontal (roof)
    2. Zygomatic (lateral wall)
    3. Maxilla (most of floor)
    4. Lacrimal (medial wall)
    5. Ethmoid (medial wall)
    6. Sphenoid (posterior wall)
    7. Palatine (posterior wall)
  55. Shallow depression in frontal boneLacrimal (tear) gland location
    Lacrimal fossa
  56. Thickening of frontal bone to help protect eye
    Supra-orbital margin
  57. Passage of blood vessels to eyebrow, eyelids, and frontal sinusesAlso occurs as supra-orbital foramen when fully enclosed
    Supra-orbital notch
  58. Groove along anterior, lateral surface of lacrimal boneLocation of lacrimal sacLeads to nasolacrimal canal
    Lacrimal sulcus
  59. Formed by maxilla and lacrimal boneProtects lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct (carries tears to nasal cavity)
    Nasolacrimal canal
  60. Passage of major sensory nerve that reaches brain through foramen rotundum
    Infra-orbital foramen
  61. Bones that enclose the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses (secretions flush nasal cavities)
    Paranasal sinuses
    Sphenoidal sinuses
    Ethmoid sinuses
    Frontal sinuses
    Maxillary sinuses

    Lighten skull and provide area of mucous epithelium
    Nasal complex
  62. Superior wal

    Lateral walls
    Lacrimal bones
    Inferior nasal conchae
    Nasal cavity bones
  63. Articulates with temporal bone at temporomandibular joint
    Condylar process
  64. Insertion point for temporalis muscle
    Coronoid process
  65. Depression that separates condylar and coronoid processes
    Mandibular notch
  66. Supports lower teeth
    Alveolar process
  67. Horizontal portion of bone
  68. Ascending part that begins at mandibular angle
  69. Insertion of mylohyoid muscle (supports mouth floor)
    Mylohyoid line
  70. Passageway for blood vessels and nerves that service the lower teeth
    Mandibular foramen
  71. Supports larynxAttachment site for muscles of larynx, pharynx, and tongue
    Hyoid bone
  72. Help support larynxAttachment point for tongue muscles
    Greater horns
  73. Attachment point for hyoid and laryngeal ligaments
    Lesser horns
  74. In middle ear within petrous portion of temporal boneConduct sound wave vibrations from tympanic membrane to hearing receptors of inner ear
    Auditory ossicles
  75. Large fibrous areas between cranial bones of infants and small childrenEase passage of head through birth canalAllow for cranial growth to keep pace with brain growth and later fetal stagesOver time, fontanelles are replaced with suturesOccipital, sphenoidal, and mastoid fontanelles disappear a month or two after birthAll fontanelles replaced before age 5 when brain stops growing
    • Fontanelles
    • -Anterior
    • -Sphenoidal
    • -Mastoid
    • -Occipital
  76. Consists of 26 bones (24 vertebrae, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx)Average adult length is 71 cm (28 in.)FunctionsProvides a column of support to bear weight of head, neck, and trunkTransfers weight to lower limbsProtects spinal columnHelps maintain upright positionVertebral regions (defined by anatomical characteristics of individual vertebrae)Cervical (7 vertebrae)Thoracic (12 vertebrae)Lumbar (5 vertebrae)SacralCoccygeal
    Vertebral column
  77. Extend superiorly and inferiorly to articulate with adjacent vertebraeHave smooth, concave surface (articular facet)
    Articular processses (superior and inferior)
  78. Transfers weight along vertebral column axis
    Vertebral body
  79. Spinous process (projects posteriorly)Laminae (form “roof” of vertebral foramen)Transverse processes (project laterally)Pedicles (form sides of vertebral arch)
    Vertebral arch
  80. Formed by vertebral body and arch
    Vertebral foramen
  81. Pads of fibrous cartilage found between bodies of adjacent vertebrae
    Intervertebral discs
  82. Spaces between successive pediclesPassage of nerves and blood vessels
    Intervertebral foramina
  83. Encloses spinal cord
    Vertebral canal
  84. One capital letter designator according to regionExamples: C, T, L, S, and CoSubscript number designates relative position within regionExample: C3 = 3rd cervical vertebra
    Referencing individual vertebrae
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