1. What chracterizes acute pyelonephritis
    WBC casts from Tom Horsfall proteins
  2. Causes for candida vaginitis
    • Antibiotics
    • contraceptives
    • systemic corticosteroid use
    • uncontrolled DM
    • immunosuppression
  3. What would mullerian duct abnormalities lead to
    hypoplastic vagina and uterus
  4. What do C. trachomatis and U. urealytic lack
    Peptidoglycan within the cell wall
  5. What symptoms can endometriosis cause
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • dysapareunia
    • infertility
  6. Klinefelter- what causes its presentation
    • 47 XXY
    • increased FSH -> gonadal failure
    • high estrogen/testosterone ratio -> feminization
  7. HBx protein from HBV
    • disrupts growth of infected cells
    • binds P53 -> no suppression
  8. BRAF, what is it
    protein kinase that activates pathway for melanocyte proliferation
  9. Uric acid most likely produces stones where
    • In an acidic environment =
    • distal tubules
    • collecting duct
  10. Role of peroxisomes
    • VLCFA breakdown
    • phytanic acid breakdown
  11. How is rapid recovery form thiopental achieved
    redistribution to other tissues
  12. Equation for Associated risk percentage
    Image Upload 1
  13. HIV gag
    • group specific antigen
    • p24 and p7
  14. Heteroplasmy- variable expression among siblings
    Some daughter cells contain more mutated DNA then other daughter cells
  15. Short acting benzodiazepine
    • triazolam < 6hours
    • oxazepam
    • midalozam
  16. Tetanus toxoid vaccine leads to
    humoral immunity
  17. Where is elastase located
    • lysosomes of macrohpages
    • azurohillic granules of neutrophils
  18. Colonizing aspergillosis
    Formation of aspergilloma in an old lung cavity of an immunosuppressed patient
  19. Sympathetic regulation of insulin
    • Alpha receptor inhibits insulin secretion
    • Beta receptors activate insulin secretion
  20. Proximal 1/3 of ureters blood supply
    from renal artery
  21. POMC gives rise to
    • beta endorphins
    • ACTH
    • MSH
  22. Afferent nerve of carotid sinus baroreceptor
    • glossopharyngeal
    • detects both high and low BP
  23. TCA effect with riboflavin deficiency
    No succinate dehydrogenase -> fumarate

    angular sotmatitis, cheilitis, glossitis
  24. Tumor lysis syndrome releases what
    K+ P+ and uric acid
  25. What is Linezolid
    • Antibiotic against MRSA and VRE
    • also slight MAO-inhbitor -> serotonin syndorme
  26. Imperforate anus
    -> meconium from urethra or vagina if fistula present

    also urogenital tract anomalies
  27. What sympathetic receptor activates RAAS
    B1 receptor
  28. What are transpeptidases
    PBP that crosslinks peptidoglycan in the cell wall
  29. How is resistance built against ceftriaxone
    Via structural changes in PBP
  30. What is Halothane toxicity
    • Hepatooxicity ->
    • small liver
    • widespread centrilobular necrosis
    • inflammation of portal tracts and parenchyma
  31. What does APC need in order to make MHC II
    They need lysosomes
  32. What is Pentazocine
    A mu receptor partial agonist
  33. What does a blood alcohol level > 100mg/dL indicate
    impaired decision making capacity
  34. What happens when E. granulosus hydatid cysts from liver spill into peritoneum
    anaphylatic shock
  35. Double blind studies prevent what
    Observer bias
  36. What drugs are used for Conn's syndrome
    • spironolactone
    • Eplerenone

    Aldosterone receptor inhibiting drugs
  37. Where does the nitrogen of urea come from
    NH3 and Aspartate of the urea cycle
  38. What is clindamycin used for
    • Oral anaerobes
    • gram positive
  39. What is this
    comedonal and nodular inflammatory eruptions
  40. How does the liver appear in cholestasis
    • deposition of bile pigment in hepatic parenchyma
    • green brown plugs in dilated bile canaliculu
  41. What are the physiologic situations leading to diastolic dysfunction
    • decreased ventricular relaxation
    • decreased ventricular outward elastic recoil
    • increased ventricular stiffness
  42. What are the class III drugs anti-arrhythmics
    • Potassium blockers:
    • Dofetilide
    • ibutilide
    • amiodarone
    • sotalol
  43. Histo of Burkitts lymphoma
    Starry sky

    • uniform round, medium sized tumor cells with basophilic cytoplasm
    • high proliferation fraction with Ki-67
  44. What are type II pneumocytes responsible for
    • pulmonary surfactant
    • replacement of alveolar epithelium following injury
  45. Effect of ADH on urea
    increases urea reabsorption in the medullary collecting duct
  46. Imperforate anus usually presents with q
    • renal agenesis
    • hypospadias
    • epispadias
    • bladder extrophy
  47. What do Staph produce when they lyse RBC
    • NAD+ and hematin
    • Allows H. influenzae to survive in sheeps blood
  48. Treatment for Staph epidermidis
    • Combo of:
    • Vancomycin with
    • Rifampin +/or gentamicin
  49. Phenytoins side effects
    • generalized lymphadenopathy
    • hirsutism
    • gingival hyperplasia
  50. Metformin in the intestine
    • increase lactate production
    • but inhibit the production of glucose from lactate via gluconeogenesis
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