Chapter 13 Review

  1. The brain and spinal cord make up the __________________, and the cranial nerves and spinal nerves make up the ____________________
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  2. The ___________ is surrounded by three meninges and conveys sensory and motor info
    spinal cord
  3. The filum terminal (a strand of fibrous tissue), originates at the _________ _____________ and ultimately beomes a part of the _________ ___________
    • conus medullaris
    • coccygeal ligament
  4. Spinal nerves are mixed nervous, meaning
    they contain both afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) fibers
  5. The _________ ________ provide physical stability and shock absorption for neural tissues of the spinal cord
    spinal meninges
  6. The _______ ________ surround the brain
    cranial meninges
  7. The __________ _________ covers the spinal cord; inferiorly, it tapers into the ________ ___________
    • dura mater
    • coccygeal ligament
  8. THe _______ ___________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal
    epidural space
  9. Interior to the inner suraface of the dura mater are the _________ _____________, the _________ __________, and the ___________ __________.
    • subdural space
    • arachnoid mater ( the second meningeal layer)
    • subarachnoid space
  10. The subarachnoid space contains ________ _______
    cerebrospinal fluid (CFS)
  11. ___________ acts as a shock absorber and a diffusion medium for dissolved gases, nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
    Cerbrospinal fluid
  12. The ________ _______, a meshwork of elastic and collogen fibers, is the innermost meningeal layer
    pia mater
  13. ________ ________ extend from the pia mater to the dura mater
    denticulate ligaments
  14. ________ ____________ is the region of integration and command initiation
    grey matter
  15. ________ ____________ carries info from place to place
    white matter
  16. THe white matter of the spinal cord contains ________ and _____________ axons
    • myelinated 
    • unmyelinated
  17. Gray matter contains 
    • cell bodies of neurons and neuroglia
    • unmyelinated axons
  18. The projections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the spinal cord are called 
  19. The ________ ________ horns contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei
    posterior gray
  20. nuclie in the ________ _________ horns function in somatic motor control
    anterior gray 
  21. The _______ _________ horns contain visceral motor neurons
    lateral gray
  22. The _________ __________ contain axons that cross from one side of the spinal cord to the other
    gray commissures
  23. The _______ ________ can be devided into six columns each of which contain tracts
    white matter
  24. _________ ___________ relay info from the spinal cord to the brain
    Ascending tracts
  25. ____________ ___________ carry info from the brain to the spinal cord
    Descending tracts
  26. Spinal nerves form ___________ that are named according to their level of emergence from the vertebral canal
  27. There are ___ pairs of spinal nerves
  28. Each pair of spinal nerves has an ________, _________, and _________
    • epineurium (outermost layer)
    • perineurium
    • endoneurium (innermost layer)
  29. A typic spinal nerve has a __________ ,_________, ____________, and a ___________
    • white ramus (containing myelinated axons)
    • gray ramus ( containing unmyelinated fibers that innervate glands and smooth muscles in the body wall)
    • dorsal ramus (providing sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back)
    • ventral ramus ( supplying the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs)
  30. Each pair of nerves monitors a region of the body surface called a 
  31. A conplex, interwoven network of nerves is a 
    nerve plexus
  32. The four large plexuses are the
    • cervical plexus
    • brachial plexus
    • lumbar plexus
    • sacral plexus
  33. ________ __________ are functional groups of interconnected neurons
    Neuronal pools
  34. The neural circuit patterns are 
    • divergence
    • convergence 
    • serial processing
    • parallel processing
    • reverberation
  35. _______ are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli
  36. A _____ ______ involves sensory fibers delivering info to the CNS, and motor fibers carrying commands to the effectors via the PNS
    neural reflex
  37. The ____ _______ is the neural "wiring" of a single reflex
    reflex arc
  38. The five steps involved ina neural reflex are
    • 1.The arrival of a stimulus and activation of a receptor
    • 2.The activation of a sensory neuron
    • 3. Information processing in the CNS
    • 4. The activation of a motor neuron
    • 5. A response by an effector
  39. Reflexes are classified according to 
    • Thier development
    • The nature of the resulting motor response
    • The complexity of the neural circuit involved
    • The site of information processing
  40. _____ _______ result from the genetically determined connections that form between neurons during development
    Innate reflexes
  41. _______ _______ are learned and typically are more complex
    Acquired reflexes
  42. _____ _______ control skeletal muscles
    Somatic reflexes
  43. ______ __________ control the activies of other systems
    visceral reflexes
  44. IN a _____ __________, a sensory neeuron synapses directly on a motor neuron, which acts as the processing center
    monosynaptic reflex
  45. In a ________ _____, which has at least one ineterneuron between the sensory afferent and the motor efferent, there is a longer delay between stimulus and response
    polysnaptic reflex
  46. Relfexes processed in the brain are
    crainal reflexes
  47. In a _____ _______, the important interconnections and processing events occur in th spinal cord
    spinal reflex
  48. ____ _________ vary in complexity
    Spinal reflexes
  49. _________ ____________ have many segments interact to produce a coordinated motor response
    intersegmental relexes
  50. The _____ _______ (such as the patellar or knee-jerk reflex) is amonosynaptic reflex that automatically regulates skeletal muscle length and muscle tone. 
    stretch reflex
  51. The sensory receptors involved in a stretch reflex are 
    muscle spindles
  52. A ______ ________ maintains one's normal upright posture
    postural reflex
  53. The______ _______ ( which monitors the tension produced during muscular contractions and prevents damge to tendons) and the _______ ________ (which move affected portions of the body away from a source of stimulation) are examples of what kind of relfex
    • tendon reflex
    • withdrawal reflexes
    • polysynaptic reflexes
  54. The _____ ______ is a withdrawal reflex affecting the muscles of a limb
    flexor reflex
  55. The ____ _______ _______ complements withdrawal reflexes
    crossed extensor reflex
  56. All polysynaptic reflexes...
    • 1. Involve pools of interneurons
    • 2. Are intersegmental in distribution
    • 3. Involve reciprocal inhibition
    • 4. Have reverberating circuits which prolong the reflexive motor response
  57. The brain can affect what type of reflex?
    spinal cord-based reflexes
  58. The brain can _______ or ________ reflex motor patterns based in the spinal cord
    • facilitate 
    • inhibit
  59. Facilitation can produce an enhancement of spinal reflexes known as
  60. Spinal reflexes may also be inhibited as when the ______ _______ in adults replaces the _______ ______ in infants
    • plantar reflex
    • babinski sign 
Card Set
Chapter 13 Review