psyc 2301 ch 10

  1. what is personality
    • the unique and relatively stable aspects of an individual's psychology
    • ie: congitions, emotions, and behaviors
  2. 4 fundamentally perspectives explaining personality
    • psychoanalytic
    • humanistic
    • social cognition theory
    • trait theory
  3. psychoanalytic perspective
    • state personality is the result of unconscious drives and early experiences
    • fits best in philosopy & developed by Sigmund Freud
    • not scientifically testable, so are not scientific theories
    • states personality is shaped by...
    • -strong unconscious desires for sex and violence
    • -our early childhood experiences
  4. humanistic perspective
    • argues that we have strong motivation to create an ideal self and this motivation shapes our personality
    • fits best in philosopy
    • not scientifically testable, so are not scientific theories
  5. social cognition theory
    says that a strong motivation for high self-esteem influences our personality
  6. trait theory
    says that genetic dispositions lead to individuals differences
  7. Freud argued 3 levels of consciousness
    • conscious
    • pre-conscious
    • unconscious
  8. conscious level
    • consists of our current awareness
    • ruled by the ego
  9. pre-consicous
    • includes thoughts and feels that we can easily pull into awaremess bc they are just below our level of consciousness
    • contains the superego
  10. unconscious
    • consists of things that are difficult and nearly impossible to pull into awareness.
    • Freud believed this level of consciousness is what truely shaped our personality
    • influenced by the ID
  11. tip of the iceberg
    Freud believed that our current awareness was just a tip of the iceberg and that the vast majority of our personality was shaped by the unconscious
  12. how can we reach unconscious wishes, desires and thoughts
    • analyzing dreams
    • looking at free associations
    • taking note of slips of the tongue (Freudian slips)
  13. dreams contain
    • manifest content-images
    • latent content-meaning
  14. 2 problems with dream analysis
    • there is no scientific evidence for the existence of latent content
    • we don't need latent content in order to find the themes of sex and violence in out dreams.
    • since the amygdale is activated during sleep, the manifest content of outrdreams tends to be sexual and violent in nature
  15. free associations
    • consists of analyzing one's stream of consciousness
    • can uncover their unconscious desires and wishes
  16. taking note of slips of the tongue
    reveal your true underlying desires
  17. 3 forms of psychological energy
    • ID
    • ego
    • superego
    • conflict amoung these influences personality
  18. ID (our unconscious self)
    • believes in the pleasure principle
    • maxamize pleasure, avoid pain
    • born with this
  19. Ego (conscious self)
    • as we grow the ego (conscious self) emerges and comes in conflict with the ID
    • ego must find acceptable ways to fulfill the desires of ID
    • follows the reality principle (ie: sometimes we must postpone gratification to obtain larger goals)
  20. superego (preconscious self)
    • internalized societal pressures become the superego
    • little voice in head telling what you should do
    • when good, rewards with pride/self-respect
    • when bad, punishes with shame/guilt
  21. problems with Freuds perspective
    • it is not truly a scientific theory (can't test it)
    • true bc Freud says so
    • this perspective is based on a small number of mentally ill patients and Freuds own self-reflectin.
    • hard to generalize to larger population
  22. conditional positive regard
    • when parents love you only if you behave
    • in order to be loved you can't be yourself
    • learn to hate your true self
    • never reach full potential
  23. unconditional regard
    • when parents love you no matter how you behave
    • you learn to love yourself more fully
    • allows you to strive for personal greatness
  24. how do we explain evil in the world
    individuals who engage in evil, did not receive unconditional positive regard growing up.
  25. problems with humanistic perspective
    • it is mostly phiosophical and not scientifically testable
    • based on a small number of mentally ill patients and thus hard to generalize to a larger population
  26. social cognition
    • influenced by humanistic perspective
    • doesn't assume we are innately good or bad, but does assume that we asll want to feel good about ourselves
    • desire for high self-esteem shapes who we are
  27. social comparison
    compare our self to others in area that we find self-relevant
  28. what determines if a domain is self-relevant
    • others value it
    • you receive positive feedback
  29. negative feedback in a self-relevant domain
    • self-esteem drops
    • if negative feedback continues, you will seek out a domain that you are good at
  30. self-efficancy
    • measure of how capable and effective you are at dealing with the demands of a particular situation
    • levels differ across different domains and strongly influence our behavior
  31. trait theory
    • (people are just different)
    • instead of why they are different, how they are different
  32. Gordon Alport
    • created list of adjectives describing how people are
    • came up with 400 different personality traits
    • but 3 fundamentally different "types" of traits
    • cardinal, central, & secondary
  33. cardinal traits
    • a single core trait that directs all your behavior
    • most ppl are not this one dimensional
  34. central traits
    most people can be summed up with 5-10 traits called central traits
  35. secondary traits
    • don't affect your every action
    • only come to the surface under specific circumstances
  36. Raymond cattell
    • narrowed Alports 4000 traits to 171 by eliminating redundant and uncommon traits
    • created factor analysis
  37. factor analysis
    • statistical analysis that allows you to measure the degree to which characteristics are similar to each other
    • high correlation thought to belong to same factor
    • Cattell concluded there are 16 personality traits based on this
  38. Hand Eysenck
    • said 16 was too many, but 3 sounded just right
    • came up with the following traits
    • -extraverted-introverted
    • -neuroticism-emotionally stable
    • -psychoticism-superefo function
  39. extraverted-introverted
    concerns how social you are
  40. neuroticism-emotionally stable
    concerns how anxious you are
  41. psychoticism-superego function
    concerns the degree to which you conform to societal pressures
  42. theorists focus on the big 5 (OCEAN)
    • Openess to experience
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extroversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neurotism
    • found cross-culturally making them biologically based
    • twins show that genetics play a roll
  43. temperament differences
    • activity level
    • quality of mood
    • approach-withdrawal
    • adaptability
    • rhythmicity
    • responsiveness
    • intensity of reaction
    • distractability
    • attention span
  44. activity level
    some infants are highly active
  45. quality of mood
    some children are happy and some are not
  46. approach-withdrawal
    • some children are more curious that others
    • showing willingness to engage in novel stimuli
  47. adaptability
    some adjust more rapidly to new experiences
  48. rhythmicity
    some children are easier to put on a schedule
  49. responsiveness
    some children are easliy "moved"
  50. intensity of reaction
    infants respond with different amounts of intensity
  51. distractability
    some kids are easily distracted by new stimuli
  52. attention span
    some kids lose interest easily
  53. based on 9 characteristics
    • 65% of infants are classified into one of 3 categories
    • -easy 40%
    • -slow to warm up15%
    • -difficult10%
    • remaining 35% are not easily categorized
Card Set
psyc 2301 ch 10
psyc 2301 ch 10