PCOM AP Written

  1. Auscultation
    • Listen to body sounds with stethoscope
    • EG Lung soungs, etc...
  2. Palpation
    • Feel body surface or structures just under the surface.
    • EG pulses, bony landmarks, muscles, nerves, etc...
  3. Percussion
    • Tap on body surface and listen.
    • USAGE: assess the size and state of abdominal organs
  4. Palpation Feature: Lymph nodes
    • small and bean-shaped
    • Found in surface creases suh as axilla and inguinal area
    • Normally they non-tender - tenderness ca nindicate infection or cancer
  5. Palpation Feature: Nerves
    Can give tingling with pressure, or numbness with extreme pressure, but not painful
  6. Palpation Feature: Adipose Tissue
    Gelatinous, jelly-like
  7. Palpation Feature: Vasculature (Artery)
    A pulse should be apparent with palpation
  8. Palpation Feature: Vasculature (Vein)
    superficial and easily to palpate - no pulse
  9. Palpaton Feature: ligament
    • connects bone to bone
    • Stay taut
  10. Palpation Feature: Tendon
    • Attach muscle to periosteum of bone
    • Smooth, tough feel, parallel fibers
    • short and wide, long and thin
  11. Palpation Feature: muscle
    • hard/soft depending on contraction
    • has striated texture that can be felt
    • has direction - fibers run in particular arrangements
  12. Palpation Feature: bone
    • consistently hard - cannot deform with pressure
    • will shift with movement
  13. Palpation Feature: skin
    • Thick or Thin (Skin in palms and soles are thick)
    • pliable (how tight?) - Can "pinch" to see how fast it retract
  14. Origin of the Gluteus Medius
    • Gluteal surface Ilium
    • Betwen posterior and anterior gluteal lines
    • below iliac crest
  15. Insertion of the Gluteus Medius
    Lateral and Superior surface of Greater Trochanter
  16. Action of the Glueteus Medius
    ABducts thigh at hip (All fibers)
  17. Origin of the Gluteus Minimus
    Gluteal surface of Ilium
  18. Insertion of the Gluteus Minimus
    Antieror surface of the Greater Trochanter
  19. Action of the Gluteus Minimus
    ABduct thigh at hip
  20. Innervation of Gluteus Medius
    Superior Gluteal Nerve, L4, L5, S1
  21. Innervation of Gluteus Minimus
    Superior Gluteal Nerve, L4, L5, S1
  22. Origin of Masseter
    Zygomatic Arch
  23. Insertion of Masseter
    Remus and Angle of Mandible
  24. Action of Masseter
    Elevation and protraction of Mandibles
  25. Innervation of Masseter
    Trigeminal CN V(V3)
  26. Origin of the Temporalis
    Temporal fossa and fascia
  27. Insertion of the Temporalis
    • Coromoid process
    • Ramus of mandible
  28. Action of the Temporalis
    Elevate and Retract Mandible
  29. Innervation of Temporalis
    CN V(V3)
  30. Origin of the Sternocleidomastoid (Sternal Head)
    manubrium (Sternal knotch)
  31. Origin of the Sternocleidomastoid (Clavicular head)
  32. Insertion of the Sternocleidomastoid
    Mastoid process
  33. Action of the Sternocleidomastoid
    • Unilaterally: Tilts head to one side and rotates the head toward the other.
    • Bilaterally: Flex head and Elevate ribcage
  34. Innervation of Sternaocleidomastoid
    Accesory CN XI
  35. Origin of the Scalenes (anterior)
    Transverse Process of C3-C6
  36. Insertion of Scalenes (Anterior and Medial)
    First rib
  37. Action of Scalenes
    • Unilaterally: Laterally flex head and neck to same side, rotate head and neck to opposte side
    • Bilaterally: Elevation of ribs 1, Flex head and neck
  38. Insertion of Scalenes (posterior)
    Second rib
  39. Innervation of Scalenes
    Cervical Nerve C3-C6
  40. Origin of the Quadratus Lumborum
    Posterior Iliac Crest
  41. Insertion of the Quadratus Lomborum
    12th Rib, transverse process of L1-L4
  42. Action of the Quadratus Lomborum
    • Unilaterally: Lateral Flexion of the Lombard Region, Laterally tilt pelvis to same side
    • Bilaterally: Fix the 12th rib
  43. Innervation of the Quadratus Lomborum
    Lumbar Plexus T12, L1,2,3
  44. Origin of the Latissimus Dorsi
    • Spines of the T6 down to Sacrum 
    • Illiac Crest 
    • Inferior Angle of Scapula
  45. Insertion of the Latissimus Dorsi
    Lesser Tubercle of Humerus
  46. Action of the Latissimus Dorsi
    Adduct, Medial Rotate, Extends Shoulder
  47. Innervation of Latissimus Dorsi
    Thoracodorsal Nerve C6-C8
  48. Origin of Trapezius
    • External Occipital Protuberance (EOP),
    • superior Nochal Line of occiputal,
    • Spinous process of C7-T12
  49. Insertion of Trapezius
    Lateral Clavicle, Acromion, Spine of Scapula
  50. Action of Trapezius (upper fibers)
    • Bilaterally: Extend head and neck
    • Unilaterally: Elevate and Upwardly Rotate Scapula, laterally flex head and neck to same side while Rotate head and neck to the opposite side
  51. Action of Trapzius (Middle fibers)
    • adduct scapula
    • Stabilize scapula
  52. Action of trapezius (Lower fibers)
    • Depress Scapula
    • Upwardly rotate scapula
  53. Origin of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
    Tubercle of Posterior Arch of C1
  54. Insertion of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
    Most Medial on the inferior nuchal lone of Occipital Bone
  55. Action of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
    Extends the head
  56. Innervation of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
    suboccipital nerve
  57. Origin of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    Spinous Process of C2
  58. Insertion of Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    Middle Medial on the inferior nuchal line of Occipital Bone
  59. Action of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    • Extends head
    • Rotates head to the same side (ipsilaterally)
  60. Innervation of the Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    suboccipital nerve
  61. Origin of Obliquus Capitis Superior
    Transverse Process of C1
  62. Insertion of Obliquus Capitis Superior
    Least Medial (Most Lateral) on the nuchal lines Occipital Bone
  63. Action of Obliquus Capitis Superior
    Extend and Laterally Flix Head to the same side
  64. Innervation of Obliquus Capitis Superior
    Suboccipital Nerve
  65. Origin of Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    Spinous Process of C2
  66. Insertion of Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    Transverse Process of C1
  67. Action of Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    Rotating the head and C1
  68. Innervation of Obliquus Capitis Inferior
    Suboccipital Nerve
  69. Origin of Rectus Abdominis
    Iliac Crest and Pubic Synthesis
  70. Inserction of Rectus Abdominis
    Costal Cartilage of ribs 5-7, Xiphoid process of sternum
  71. Action of Rectus Abdominis
    • Flex torsal
    • Tilt pelvis posteriorly
  72. Innervation of Rectus Abdominis
    Ventral Rami, T5 - T12
  73. Origin of the Internal Obliques
    • Iliac Crest
    • Lateral Inguinalligament
    • Thoracolumbar fascia
  74. Insertion of the Internal Obliques
    Linea Semilunaris(alba) of Rectus Abdominis, Costal Cartilage of ribs 8-12
  75. Action of Internal Obliques
    • Unilaterally: Lateral Flex vertebral column to same side, Rotate Vertebrae Column to same side
    • Bilaterally: Flex vertebral column, compress abdomin
  76. Innervation of Intenal Obliques
  77. Origin of External Obliques
    Ribs 5-12
  78. Insertion of External Obliques
    Linea Semilunaris(alba) of Rectus Abdominis, Iliac Crest
  79. Action of External Obliques
    • Unilaterally: Lateral Flex Lombard region to same side, Rotate Vertebrae Column to opposite side
    • Bilaterally: Flex verebral column, compress abdomin
  80. Innervation of External Obliques
  81. Origin of Transverse Abdominis
    • Lateral inguinal ligament
    • Iliac Crest
    • Ribs 6-12
    • Thoracolumbar fascia
  82. Insertion of Transverse Abdominis
    • Abdominal aponeurosis
    • Linea Semilunaris(alba)
  83. Action of Transverse Abdominis
    Compress abdomin
  84. Innervation of Transverse Abdominis
    Intercostal Nerve
  85. Origin of the Infraspinatus
    Infraspinous Fossa of the Scapula
  86. Insertion of the Infraspintus
    Greater Tubercle  of Humerus
  87. Action of Infraspintus
    • Lateral Rotation of arm at shoulder
    • Adduct shoulder (GHJ)
    • Stabilize humerus
  88. Innervation of Infraspinatus
    Suprascapular Nerve C4, C5,C6
  89. Origin of Supraspinatus
    Supraspinous Fossa of Scapula
  90. Insertion of Supraspinatus
    Greater Tubercle of humerus
  91. Action of Supraspinatus
    • Abduct arm at shoulder (GHJ)
    • Stabilize humerus
  92. Innervation of Supraspinatus
  93. Origin of True Hamstring
    Ischial Tuberocity
  94. Origin of Semitendinosus
    Ishial tuberosity (Pelvis)
  95. Insertion of Semitendinosus
    Tibial Shaft
  96. Action of Semitendinosus
    • Flex knee
    • Extends Hip
    • Posterior Pelvic Tilt (PPT)
  97. Innervation of Semitendinosus
    Tibial Nerve
  98. Origin of Semimembranosus
    Ischial Tuberosity of pelvis
  99. Insertion of Semimembranosus
    Posterior Medial Condyle of Tibia
  100. Action of Semimembranosus
    • Extends hip
    • Flex knee
    • Posterior Pelvic Tilt (PPT)
  101. Innervation of Semimembranosus
    Tibial Nerve
  102. Origin of biceps Femoris - Short Head
    Linea Aspera of Femor
  103. Insertion of Biceps Femoris - Short Head
    • Head of Fibula
    • Lateral condyle of Tibia
  104. Action of Biceps Femoris - Short Head
    • Flexes knee
    • Extends Hip
    • Posterior Pelvic Tilt (PPT)
  105. Innervation of Biceps Femoris - Short Head
    Peroneal nerve
  106. Origin of Biceps Femoris - Long Head
    Ishial tuberosity of pelvis
  107. Insertion of Biceps Femoris - Long Head
    • Head of Fibula
    • Lateral Condyle of Tibia
  108. Action of Biceps Femoris - Long Head
    • Flex Knee
    • Extends thigh at hip
    • Posterior  Pelvic Tilt (PPT)
  109. Innervation of Biceps Femoris - Long Head
    Tibial Nerve
  110. Origin of Gastrocnemius (Medial Head)
    • Medial Condyle of Femar
    • Posterior of Femar
  111. Origin of Gastrocnemius (Lateral Head)
    • Lateral Condyle of Femar
    • Posterior of Femar
  112. Insertion of Gastrocnemius
    Calcaneus via Calcaneus tendon
  113. Action of Gastrocnemius
    Plantar Flex of foot
  114. Innervation of Gastrocnemius
    Tibial Nerve S1, S2
  115. Origin of Soleus
    • Soleal line
    • Proximal, Posterior Surface of the Tibia
    • Posteror aspect head of Fibula
  116. Insertion of Soleus
    Calcaneus via Calcaneal Tendon
  117. Action of Soleus
    Plantar Flex foot
  118. Innervation of Soleus
    Tibial Nerve L5, S1, S2
  119. Origin of the Peroneus Brevis
    Lateral (coronal), Distal (lower) 2/3 of the Fibia
  120. Insertion of Peroneus Brevis
    Base (Tuberosity) of the 5th metatarsal
  121. Action of Peroneus Brevis
    • Plantar Flex of foot
    • Evert of ankle
  122. Innervation of Peroneus Brevis
    superficial Peroneal nerve L4,5,S1
  123. Origin of Peroneus Longus
    • Head of Fibula
    • Lateral (coronal), Proximal (upper) 2/3 of Fibula
  124. Insertion of Peroneus Longus
    • 1st cuneiform
    • 1st metatarsal
  125. Action of Peroneus Longus
    • Plantar Flex foot
    • Everts foot at ankle
  126. Innervation of Peroneus Longus
    Superficial Peroneal Nerve L4,5, S1
  127. Origin of Tibialis Anterior
    • Lateral condyle of tibia
    • Lateral surface of tibia
    • interosseous membrane
  128. insertion of Tibialis Anterior
    • Medial Cuneiform
    • 1st Metatarsal
  129. Action of Tibialis Anterior
    • Dorsalflex Foot at ankle
    • Invert Foot
  130. Innervation of Tibialis Anterior
    Deep Peroneal Nerve
  131. Origin of Gluteus Maximus
    • Posterior of Sacrum
    • Coccyx
    • Posterior iliac crest
    • sacrotuberous and sacroiliac ligaments
  132. Insertion of Gluteus Maximus
    Gluteal Tuberosity of Femar
  133. Action of Gluteus Maximus
    • Extends hip
    • Laterally Rotates hip
    • ABducts hip
  134. Innervation of Gluteus Maximus
    Inferior Gluteal Nerve
  135. Origin of Vastus Medialis
    Medial Linea aspera of Femar
  136. Insertion of Vastus Medialis
    • Quadraceps Tendon to patella
    • Through the base of patella
    • Patella Ligament to the Tibial Tuberosity
  137. Action of the Vastus Medialis
    Extends leg at knee
  138. Innervation of Vastus Medialis
    Femoral Nerve
  139. Origin of Vastus Lateralis
    • Greater Trochanter
    • Lateral linea aspera of femar
    • Gluteal tuberosity
  140. Insertion of Vastus Lateralis
    • Quadaceps Tendon to patella
    • Through the base of patella
    • Patellar Ligament to the Tibial Tuberosity
  141. Action of Vastus Lateralis
    Extends legs at Knee
  142. Innervation of Vastus Lateralis
    Femoral Nerve
  143. Origin of the Rectus Femoris
    Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)
  144. Insertion of Rectus Femoris
    • Quadraceps Tendon to patella
    • Base of the Patella
    • Patellar Ligament to the Tibial Tuberosity
  145. Action of Rectus Femoris
    • Extends leg at knee
    • Flex hip
  146. Innervation of Rectus Femoris
    Femoral Nerve
  147. Origin of Deltoid (Anterior & Middle)
    • Lateral 1/3 of Clavicle
    • Acromion
    • Spin of scapula
  148. Insertion of Deltoid (Anterior & Middle)
    Deltoid Tuberosity of Humerus
  149. Action of Deltoid (Anterior & Middle)
    • Flex Arm at shoulder
    • Medial Rotate arm at shoulder 
    • Horizontally aBduct shoulder
  150. Innervation of Deltoid (Anterior and Middle)
    Axilliary Nerve C5, C6
  151. Origin of Deltoid (Posterior)
    Supraspinatus of Scapula
  152. Insertion of Deltoid (Posterior)
    Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
  153. Action of Deltoid (Posterior)
    • Laterall rotate arm
    • Extends Arm
    • Horizontally ABduct GHJ
  154. Innervation of Deltoid (Posterior)
    Axillary Nerve
  155. Origin of Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Posterior surface of Ulna and radius
    • Interosseous membrane
  156. Insertion of Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Base of first metacarpal
  157. Action of Abductor Pollicis Longus
    • Abduct thumb
    • extend thumb
    • abduct wrist
  158. Innervation of Abductor Pollicis Longus
    Radial C6,7,8
  159. Origin of Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Posterior surface of radius
    • Interosseous membrane
  160. Insertion of Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  161. Action of Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Extend the thumb (interphalangeal joint)
    • Extend the thumb (metacarpophlangeal and carpometacarpal joint)
    • Abduct the wrist
  162. Innervation of Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    Radial C6,7,8
  163. Origin of Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Anterior surface of radius
  164. Insertion of Extensor Pollicis Longus
    Proximal phalange of thumb
  165. Innervation of Extensor Pollicis Longus
  166. Action of Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Flex thumb  (Interphalangeal joint)
    • Flex thumb (Metacarpalphalangeal joint and carpalmetacarpal joint)
  167. Origin of Adductor Pollicis
    • Capitate
    • Second and third metacarpals
  168. Insertion of Adductor Pollicis
    Base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  169. Action of Adductor Pollicis
    • Adduct the thumb (Carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joint)
    • Flex thumb (Metacarpophalangeal joint)
  170. Innervation of Adductor Pollicis
    Ulnar Nerve
  171. Oirgin of Opponens Pollicis
    • Flexor Retinaculum
    • Tubercle of trapezium
  172. Insertion of Opponens Pollicis
    Radial surface of 1st metacarpal
  173. Action of Opponens Pollicis
    Opposition of thumb (Carpometacarpal joint)
  174. Innervatoin of Opponens Pollicis
    Median C6,7,8, T1
  175. Origin of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  176. Insertion ofExtensor Carpi Ulnaris
    Base of 5th metacarpal
  177. Action of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Extend wrist
    • ADduct wrist
  178. Origin of Extensor Digitorum
    Common extensor tendon from the lateral epicondyle of humerus
  179. Insertion of Extensor Digitorum
    Base of middle and distal phalanges of 2nd - 5th fingers
  180. Action of Extensor Digitorum
    • Extend the 2nd - 5th finger (at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint)
    • Extend wrist
  181. Origin of Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
  182. Insertion of Externsor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Base of 2nd metacarpal
  183. Action of Extensor Carpi Radialis Lonngus
    • Extend wrist
    • ABduct wrist
    • Flex elbow
  184. Innervation of Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    Raial C5,6,7,8
  185. Origin of Scalene (middle)
    Transverse process of C2-C7
  186. Origin of Scalene (Posterior)
    Transverse process of C5-C6
  187. Origin of Erector Spinae - Spinalis Thoracis
    Spinous processes of upper lumbar and lower thoracic
  188. Origin of Erector Spinae - Spinalis Cervicis
    Spinous process of C7
  189. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Spinalis Thoracis
    Spinous proceeses of upper thoracic vertebrae
  190. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Spinalis Cervicis
    Spinous processes of C2 to C6
  191. Origin of Erector Spinae - Longissimus Thoracis
    Common tendon
  192. Oirgin of Erector Spinae - Longissimus Cervicis and Capitis
    Transverse proces of T1-T5
  193. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Longissimus Thoracis
    • Transverse process of T3-T12
    • Ribs 3-12
  194. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Longissimus Cervicis
    Transverse process of C2-C7
  195. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Longissimus Capitis
    Mastoid process
  196. Origin of Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis Lumborum
    Common Tendon
  197. Origin of Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis Thoracis and Cervicis
    ribs 1-12
  198. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis Lumborum
    • Transverse process of L1-L3
    • Ribs 6-12
  199. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis Thoracis
    ribs 1-6
  200. Insertion of Erector Spinae - Iliocostalis Cervicis
    Thransverse process of C5-C7
  201. Action of Erector Spinae Group
    • Unilaterally: Laterally Flex vertebral column to same side
    • Bilaterally: Extend the vertebral column
  202. Innervation of Erector Spinae Group
  203. Cancer or Infection of Lymph Nodes
    Tenderness of lymph nodes
  204. Bunions
    • Big Toe pointed toward second toe.
    • A bump appears on the outside edge of your toe
    • Red, calloused skin along the inside edge of the big toe
  205. Tailor's Bunion
    Inflammation of the fifth metatarsal bone at the base of the little toe
  206. Plantar Fasciitis
    • Tenderness of the bottom of the inner heel
    • Some develop bone spurs at the Calcaneus
  207. Patellar dislocation
    caused by the Vastsus Lateralis
  208. rotator cuff tears
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres Minor
    • Subscapularis
  209. Joker of Low Back Pain
    Quadratus Lumborium
  210. Causes some headaches
    Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
  211. Commong site Enthesopathy 
    Rectus Femoris
  212. "foot drop"
    Weakness of the Tibialis Anterior
  213. anterior shin splints
    Tibialis Anterior
Card Set
PCOM AP Written