What is the major homeostatic organ of the body? What does it regulate
- 1. Blood volume
- 2. Blood Pressure
- 3. Electrolytes
- 4. Waste Products
- 5. pH
How much blood is filtered by the kidneys per minute?
1/4 of the total blood supply per minute
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What makes up the renal corpuscle?
the Bauman's capsule and the glomerulus
What percetage of nephrons begin in the cortex
What is the special epithelium of the urinary system?
- Transitional Epithelium
- -2 nuclei
- -protects against osmotic pressure
- -kidney calyx to urethral area
What special part controls salt flow and where is it found?
The Macula Densa is between the two arterioles of the nephron
What is the main function of the urinary system?
Removal of nitrogenous waste
If the kidneys do the work, what are the other parts of the urinary system used for?
storage resevoirs or transportation channels for urine
Which kidney is generally high and why?
the right kidney is slightly lower because it is crowded by the liver
What keeps the kidneys in a retroperitoneal position?
The renal capsule and the fat deposits keep the kidney attached to the posterior wall
The trigone of the bladder is created by what?
The two ureter orifices and the urethral orifice
Name the three regions of the male urethra
prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethrae
What epithelium is found in the loop of henle?
simple squamous epithelium
What epithelium is found in the proximal convoluted tube and the collecting ducts of the nephron?
*proximal convoluted tubules have microvilli to increase the surface area
What are the three major renal process and which portion of the nephron takes care of each?
- 2. Reabsorbtion: proximal convoluted tubule
- -+/- 80% H2O, glucose, AA
- 3. Sectretion: Distal Convoluted tubule
- -pH, drug metabolites
What is urine made of?
- uric acid
- Amino Acids
- drug metabolites
About how many nephrons does each kidney have?
over 1 million!
What is the technical term for emptying the bladder and what controls relief? How much urine is needed to activate the need for relief?
the internal urethral sphincter and the external urtehral sphinter control flow of urine from the badder
What is found directly above the kidney?
What kind of epithelium is this and where is it found?
Transitional epithelium found from the kidney calyx to the urethral area in the bladder
*mostly in bladder, allows to expansion as bladder fills with urine
By what method does the urine move through the ureters from the kidneys to the bladder?
What is the difference in length between the male and female urethras?
Male-20cm transports both semen and urine
Female-4 cm; more prone to UTI and bladder infections
What is this part of the urinary system and what kind of epithelium us this?
Ureter, the inside is transitional epithelium
What is this and what is its function?
Glomerulus- filtration (creates the filtrate)
What is there and where is it located?
This is a medullary ray. It is composed of collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney
What is this and what is composed of?
This is the renal cortex, composed of the bulk of the kidney's nephrons.
It contains numerous glomeruli and loops of henle
What is this and how can you tell?
This is the outer medulla
it is characterized by collecting ducts and some loops of henle
What is the membrane called that surrounds the kidney?
- a- afferent arteriole
- b. efferent arteriole
- (blood vessels will be on models)
- i. collecting duct
- j. loop of henle
- k. peritubular capillaries
- l. distal convoluteed tubule
- m. proximal convoluted tubule
- n. glomerulus
label the blood vessels and know the rest too!