bio ch.25

  1. homeostasis
    the art of staying the same; maintaining stable conditons on the inside no matter what your body is doing
  2. kidney
    organ that filters blood to get rid of waste products and makes urine
  3. functions of urinary sytem
    • regulation of ion
    • regulation of water volume in bloodstream
    • maintains proper ph
    • elimination of cellular waste products
    • retains nutrients
    • secretion of hormones
  4. urea
    made form breaking down proteins; secreted in urine
  5. dilute urine
    urea dissolved in lots of water
  6. concentrated urine
    urea dissolved in very little water
  7. protonephridia
    a single cell through which wastes leaves; flatworms
  8. nephridia
    small tube that releases waste products to the outside; earthworms
  9. renal artery
    carries blood from the heart to the kidney to be filtered
  10. renal vein
    carries blood from the kidneys back to the heart
  11. ureter
    carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
  12. bladder
    stores urine
  13. urethra
    carries urine from the bladder out
  14. in women the urethra is
    short but has a wide diameter; more prone to bladder infections
  15. in men the urethra is
    long, but very narrow; more prone to kidney stones getting stuck
  16. cortex
    outermost portion of kidney
  17. medulla
    innermost portion of kidney; contains many microscopic structures
  18. pyramids
    triangle shaped sections of kidney; concentrates urine, contains nephron parts
  19. nephron
    individual filters for blood; more than 1 million in each kidney
  20. column
    tissue between pyramids of kidney; contains blood vessels
  21. papilla
    tip of the pyramid; urine collects here
  22. calyx
    tube leading from papilla to pelvis
  23. pelvis
    major open area inside kidney that leads to the ureter
  24. afferent arteriole
    small artery that takes blood into the glomerulus
  25. glomerulus
    capalleries that filter the blood
  26. filtrate
    the filtered blood; consists of water, nutrients, and waste products
  27. bowman's capsule
    catches the filtrate
  28. efferent arteriole
    small artery that takes blood out of the glomerulus
  29. proximal convoluted tubule
    close coiled tube in cortex
  30. loop of henle
    long loop to medulla and back to cortex; makes urine more or less concentrated
  31. distal convoluted tubule
    far coiled tube in cortex
  32. collecting ducts
    collects urine
  33. peritubular capillaries
    blood vessels around nephron that do tubular reabsorption and secretion
  34. tubular reabsorption
    takes water and nutrients out of proximal convoluted tubule and into the bloodstream
  35. tubular secretion
    put extra waste products from the bloodstream into the distal convoluted tubule
  36. blood pressure in renal artery determines
    urine volume
  37. high blood pressure makes
    more urine
  38. caffeine
    increases the size of the renal artery, so you get more urine
  39. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    allows more to be reabsorbed back to the bloodstream; makes concentrated urine
  40. alcohol
    cancels the effects of ADH, so less water reabsorbed; makes dilute urine
  41. dialysis
    run blood through vat of chemicals; good stuff stays in blood, bad stuff dilutes into vat
  42. erythropoietin
    hormone secreted by the kidneys; makes more red blood cells to carry more oxygen
Card Set
bio ch.25