bio ch.21

  1. suspension feeders
    extract food from surrounding water; sponge,whale
  2. substrate feeders
    live on their food and eat through the food; earth worms
  3. fluid feeder
    drink only fluid; mosquitos
  4. bulk feeders
    eat large pieces of food; humans
  5. rumination
    regurgitating food and rechewing it to break down cellulose of plants; cows
  6. herbivores
    eat only plants; often have flat teeth for grinding; cows
  7. carnivores
    eat only animals; often have sharp, pointy teeth for ripping meat; dogs
  8. omnivores
    eat both plants and animals; often have both sharp,point teeth and flat teeth; humans
  9. digestion
    breaking food into small molecules to enter cells
  10. how digestion works
    • ingestion-you put food in your mouth
    • digestion-breaking food into small molecules
    • absorption-getting food into the body's cells
    • elimination-getting rid of undigested material
  11. first organ of the digestive system
  12. hard palatte
    upper,front portion of mouth
  13. soft palette
    upper,back portion of mouth
  14. uvula
    thingy hanging in the back of your throat
  15. tongue
    muscle; has 4 different types of taste buds; sweet, salty,sour,and bitter
  16. saliva
    99.5 % water and is used to moisten food; controlled by nervous system
  17. amylase
    converts starch into maltose
  18. dental caries
    cavaties; caused by bacteria building up on teeth, making acid which destroys tooth enamel
  19. pharynx
    throat; common pathway for food and air
  20. esophagus
    connection betwen mouth and stomach
  21. peristalsis
    muscle contractions push the food through the digestive system
  22. esophagaeal sphincter
    keeps food in the stomach and out of the espophagus
  23. stomach
    j shaped, secretes gastric juice, holding tank
  24. parietal cells
    secrete stomach acid (HCl)
  25. mucosal cells
    produce mucus to keep acid from eating stomach 
  26. ulcer
    bacteria  invade and kill mucosal cells; not enough mucus produced, stomach acid actually touches underlying cells which causes pain
  27. acid reflux
    esophageal sphincter doesn't stay shut and acid gets into the esophagus
  28. heartburn
    pain from acid in esophagus
  29. antacids
    neutralize stomach acid
  30. acid blockers
    block the release of acid from the parietal cells
  31. pepsin
    digests proteins to amino acids
  32. pyloric sphincter
    a ring of circular muscle that seperates the stomach from the small intestine 
  33. liver
    makes bile
  34. bile
    breaks large pieces of fat into small pieces of fat
  35. gallbladder
    secretes bile
  36. pancreas
    secretes glucagon, insulin, and other digestive enzymes
  37. glucagon
    takes glucose out of storage
  38. insulin
    makes you store glucose
  39. amylase
    converts starch to maltose
  40. trypsin and chymotrypsin
    digests proteins to small polypeptides
  41. nucleases
    digests nucleaic acids to sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous bases
  42. lipase
    breaks down lipids to 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  43. small intestine
    more digestion and absorbs nutrients; 1 inch diameter, 10 feet length
  44. duodenum
    first 12 inches of the small intestine; does lots of digestion
  45. villi
    where nutrient absorption takes place; contains a lot of capillaries
  46. large intestine
    formation of feces by absorbing water; 2.5 inch diameter, 3 feet length
  47. cecum
    1st part of large intestine; pouch
  48. appendix
    does a little immune system work
  49. rectum
    stores feces
  50. constipation
    feces in large intestine too long; too much water removed
  51. diarrhea
    feces not in large intestine long enough, not enough water removed
  52. one of the 7 warning signs of cancer is
    unexplained change in bowel or bladder habits
  53. essential nutrients
    materials that must be eaten because we can't make them
  54. undernourished
    not enough calories in diet
  55. obesity
    body weight more than 20% above the desireable weight due to fat
  56. malnourished
    missing one or more nutrients; ex: scurvy from not enough vitamin C
  57. vitamins
    organic molecules that are required in diet
  58. minerals
    inorganic molecules that are required in diet
Card Set
bio ch.21