Biomedical Core

  1. Simple Columnar Epithelia
    • Single layer of column-like cells
    • -with or without cilia
    • -with or without microvilli
    • -with or without mucus (goblet cells)
  2. Simple Columnar Epithelia
    Ciliated simple columnar locations
    • -Respiratory tract
    • -Uternine tubes/uterus
    • -Efferent ducts testes
    • -Some paranasal sinuses
    • -Canal of spinal cord & ventricles of brain
  3. Simple Columnar Epithelia
    Nonciliated simple columnar locations
    • -GI tract
    • -Glandular ducts
    • -Gallbladder
  4. psuedostratified columnar epithelium is _________.
  5. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelia
    • -Appears to have layers, but it does not
    • -All cells attached to basement membrane

    • Locations:
    • Ciliated- Upper respiratory airways

    Not Ciliated- Glands; Epididymis & urethra
  6. Stratified Squamous Epithelia
    • -Apical surface is made up of squamous (flat) cells
    • -Other layers have different shapes, but name based on   apical layer

    • Location:
    • Skin
    • Mucous membranes
  7. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, making up about ___-_____ of the human body weight.  Skin (also called integument) and mucous membranes are both _________ ________ __________ and so it's safe to say this is the most ______ type of epithelium in the human body.
    one-sixth; stratified squamous epithelium; common
  8. Square (cuboidal) cells are involved in secretion:
    "square if for 'sequetion'."
  9. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelia
    -Apical surface is made up of cube-shaped cells.

    -Two or more layers

    • Location:
    • -Sweat gland ducts
    • -Esophageal gland ducts
    • -Part of urethra
  10. Stratified Columnar Epithelia
    -Apical surface is made up of tall cells

    -Two or more layers

    • Locations:
    • -Part of urethra
    • -Execretory ducts of some glands
    • -Part of anal mucous membranes
    • -Part of conjunctiva in eye
  11. Transitional epithelium is a
    term used when the shape of cells, and their layering, changes depending on whether the organ is stretched or contracted.
  12. Transitional Epithelia
    • -Shape of cells changes depending on state of stretch
    • -Several layers

    • Location:
    • -Bladder and nearby urethra and ureters

    • Full bladder:
    • squamous cells

    • Empty bladder:
    • cuboidal cells
  13. Endocrin glands secrete
    substances into extracellular fluid, then blood
  14. Exocrine glands secrete
    substances outside of body.

    Both endocrine and exocrine glands generally line with (simple or stratified) cuboidal epithelium
  15. Glandular epithelium is responsible for _________, the production of substances that are released outside the body (______ _______) or within the body (________ ______)
    secretion; exocrine glands; endocrine glands
  16. Sweat is released outside the body by ________ ______. Hormones are released by _______ ______.
    exocrine glands; endocrine glands
  17. Glands have a ____, which _______ the secretory product to where it is supposed to end up, and a _________ _______, where the cells that make the glandular secretion are located.
    duct (lavender); conducts; secretory portion (pink)
  18. Glands are named based on
    • The branching pattern of the duct
    • -unbranched = simple
    • -branched = compound

    • The shape of the secretory portion
    • -tube-like = tubular
    • -grape-like = acinar
    • -both = tubuloacinar
  19. A tubular shape to the secretory portion is easy to figure out:
    it's shaped like a tube.
  20. An acinar shape has another name, what is it?
  21. A combination of the tubular and acinar types in the secretory portion is called, __________. The only glands that are tubuloacinar in their secretory portion are branched in the duct portion, so there is only one type to remember:
    tubuloacinar; compound tubuloacinar
  22. Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands:
    Based on how the cell secretes its product to the outside environment, what are they?


  23. Merocrine Secretion,
    packaged into vesicles that can then fuse with the cell membrane on demand to release the cell's secretory product. Saliva and pancreatic enzymes are secreted in this way.
  24. Apocrine secretion
    vesicles gather together in a little cell life raft which is then jettisoned and broken open, releasing the vesicle produce. The male prostate and female mammary glands secrete their products in this way
  25. Holocrine secretion
    is the most violent and destructive form of secretion.  The secretory product is made in the cytoplasm of the cell, and then the cell blows itself to bits, releasing the secretory product. Not surprisingly, the sebaceous glands of the skin, which are over-active in teenagers, use this mode of secretion
  26. The ground substance is composed of several proteins:


  27. The cells of the connective tissue secrete a ______ ________ (____________ ______) which can vary from liquid, as in blood, all the way to rock-hard, as in bone.
    ground substance; (extracellular matrix)
  28. Proteins of the Ground Substance:
    (Extracellular Matrix)
    -Connective tissue ground substance is also called extracellular matrix

    • -Several important proteins found here:
    • fibronectin
    • laminin
    • proteoglycans
    •      -a class of proteins that contain lost of sugar
    •      -for example, mucus is mostly proteoglycan

    • -Integrin links these to cell surface
    • -Collagen fibers link these to connective tissue
  29. Collagen fibers are made up of
    collagen. Collagen comes in several different types (called type I collagen, type II collagen, etc. up to type XXIX collagen).  Collagen is a triple helix. This structure gives it strength along the fiber.
  30. Elastic fibers are made of
    elastin and are abundant in tissues that need to stretch and then snap back into their previous shape, like blood vessels.
  31. Reticular fibers are made of
    type III collagen.  Structures that stain with silver are called argyrophilic.
  32. Body fat is produced by adipocytes and is
    used for insulation, energy storage, and to enrich diet companies.
  33. Name the Connective Tissue Cells
    Fibroblasts - Most numerous connective tissue cells; Secrete fibrous components and ground substance.

    Adipocytes - Fats cells; Store triglycerides.

    Mast Cells - Near blood vessels; Important for inflammation; produce histamine.

    White Blood Cells - Migrate to sites of damage (neutrophils, eosinophils)

    Macrophages - "Big eaters": swallow and destroy invaders or debris; Fixed or wandering.

    Plasma Cells - Formed from white blood cells (B lymphocytes); Secrete special proteins called antibodies that help attack invaders.
  34. What cells fit into the category of defensive cells
    Mast cells, white blood cells, macrophages, plasma cells
  35. Defensive Cells are
    cells that defent the body against invaders. They patrol the connective tissues and attack any enemies the find there.
Card Set
Biomedical Core
Objectives 6-15