1. what is the basic functional unit of the human body 
    the cell are the basic and anatamical unit of the body 
  2. what is the formation of the cell membrane?
    it is a phospholipid bi-layer embedded with protein
  3. what are the functions of the intergraded proteins on the membrane?
    these proteins can act as receptors channels, pumps, or transporters 
  4. what is the nuclear envelope
    it's a double nuclear membrane (outter and inner) which seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.  it contains pores which control the movement of substances in and out of the nucleus.
  5. what materials contain in the nucleus
    it contains DNA arranged in chromosomes 
  6. what is euchromatin?
    more extended from (light) DNA, which is potentially transcriptionally active
  7. what is heterochromatin?
    highly condensed (dark) and transcrptionally inactive
  8. where is protein transcription happen?
    in the nucleoli 
  9. what form chromatin complex?
    Chromatin is a complex of DNA, Histone proteins, nonhistone proteins
  10. what do diploid, haploid,polyploidy, & aneuploid mean?
    • Diploid-a pair or 2 sets of of homologous chromosomes
    • Haploid- one set of chromosomes
    • polyploidy- containe more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes
    • aneuploid- have atypical chromosomal numbers
  11. what are cytoskeletons?
    microfilaments, microtubules, & intermediate filaments
  12. what types of cytoskeletons have motor proteins?
    microfilaments and microtubules 
  13. what is the main function of the mitochondrium?
    provides energy, ATP, that enables neighbor cells to work and body to function
  14. what cell organelle responses for protein synthesis?
    the Rough endoplasmic reticulum 
  15. what does the golgi apperatus do?
    recieves synthetic product from the ER, modifies them, and exports them to a variety of destinations
  16. what is the main function of lysosome?
    the contain enzymes that are required for the degrading of proteins and other organelles 
  17. what is the main function of ribosomes?
    protein synthesis. Ribosomes also move on the mRNA from 5 to 3
  18. what is the main function of peroxisomes?
    • synthesis and degregation of hydrogen
    • beta oxidation
    • phospholipid exchange
    • bile acid synthesis
  19. how many cell junctions are there?
    there are 4 cell junctions
  20. which of the cell junction has communication between the cells?
    gap junction
  21. what is the main function of the microvilli?
    they function to increase the cell surface are available for absorption
  22. what is the main function of cilia?
    move back and forth to propel fluid and particles in one direction.  important in clearing mucus from the resiratory tract
  23. what is the cell cycle?
    process of division (mitosis) where the cell will divide into 2 identicle parts, one for each daughter cell
  24. what does G0 stand for?
    phase in which cells are dormat or not dividing
  25. what does G1 stand for? 
    also known as gap 1 but is the first stage of interphase
  26. what does S stand for?
    Stands for synthesis. DNA is replicated 
  27. what does M stand for?
  28. what are the functional divisions of the nervous system?
    sensory and motor
  29. what are the anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
    CNS & PNS
  30. which functional division is for autonomic nervous system?
    Motor. ANS provides autonomic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity or secretions
  31. what is the difference between the nerve and the tract?
    Nerve located in the PNS. They establish communication between brain and spinal cord centers and the sense organs and effectors

    tracts located as fibers in PNS. axon bundles running in the spinal cord and brain. contain either sensory or motor signals
  32. what is the difference between the ganglion and nucleus?
    group of similar neurons associate with connective tissue in the PNS is called ganglio

    group of similar neurons in the CNS is called nucleus
  33. what kind of neuronal information do the dorsal and ventral roots carry seperatly?
    Dorsal root carries sensory information to the spinal cord. Ventral root carries motor commands away from the spinal cord.
  34. what type of neurons is contained in the dorsal horn?
    dominated by sensory neurons
  35. what type of neurons is contained in the ventral horns?
    contains alpha and gamma motor neurons
  36. what are the 4 distinctive regions of a neuron?
    dendrite, axon, soma, and terminal
  37. what is the main function of the soma?
    metabolic center of the cell
  38. what are the nissil bodies?
    highly developed ER that plays a role in protein synthesis
  39. what is the main function of the dendrite?
    extends the cell body, they are the points at which nerve impulses are recieved by the cell
  40. what is the main function of the axon?
    transmits impulses at the distal end 
  41. what is the main function of the terminal?
    it is where nerve connection is formed
  42. where are the neurotransmitters synthesized?
    synthesized within the axon terminal
  43. how does a neuron recieve information?
    through the dendrite
  44. how does a neuron send information?
    it sends info through the axon
  45. what is the action potential?
    process in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls 
  46. on which parts of the neuron does the action potential occur?
    the junction gaps between the cell body and axon known as the hillock
  47. what is the axonal transportation?
    transportation of macromolecules from and to the cell body to the synapses
  48. is the axonal transportation the same as the action potential?
    no. axonal transportation takes place inside the axon and action potential takes place at the hillock
  49. where does the axonal transportation happen?
    inside the Axon
  50. where is the axohillock?
    located at a junction between the cell body and the axon itself
  51. where is the beginning of the action potential?
    it is initiated at the hillock
  52. what structure is formed by the terminal?
    the synapse
  53. what is the presynaptic membrane?
    the part of the cell membrane of an axon terminal that faces the cell membrane of the meuron or muscle fiber with which the axon terminal establishes a synapse 
  54. what substance will release from the terminal? to where?
    releases electrical impulses from one neuron to the next
  55. what are the typical types of neurons?
    sensory, motor, & interneurons
  56. where do you expect to see bipolar neurons?
    in the sensory pathways (for sight smell hearing and balance)
  57. where are the typical pseudounipolarneurons?
    Dosal Root Ganglion. the primary general sensory neurons are usually 
  58. where are the typical multipolar neurons?
    in the motor neurons. most common.
  59. what is the name of chemicals released by neurons?
    based on different neurotransmitters released, such as cholinergic neurons.
  60. what forms a myelin sheath in the PNS?
    Schwann cell, one cell one segment one axon; one axon multi cells
  61. what forms the myelin sheath in the CNS?
    Oolgodendrocyte, one cell multi sheath; different branches of one cell can envelope segments of several axons.
  62. what is the node of Ranvier?
    Gaps along the pathway of myeline sheath 
  63. how many typical types of synapses
    • there are 3. Axosomatic (2nd most commn)
    • Axodendritic (Most common)
    • Axoaxonic junction (rare)
  64. describe 3 coverings of a nerve
    • nerves have external fibrous coat of dense conn. tissue (epineurium)
    • each bundle is surrounded by the perineurium
    • within the perineurium sheath run the schwann cell and their enveloping connective tissue,(Endoneurium)
  65. what are the Glia?
    more abundant in the brain than in the neurons. play a metabolic and supporting role for the neurons
  66. does glia transmit the action potential?
  67. what is the main function of astrocyte?
    they bind neurons to capillaries and the the pia matter. they also initiate the formation of the blood brain barrier
  68. where are the epedymal cells?
    they are cells which line the ventricles of the brain?
  69. which type of glia participate in the blood brain barrier?
    the astrocytes
  70. how many types of muscles are there?
    • 3  muscle
    • smooth 
    • cardiac
  71. what are the characteristics of skeletal muscles?
    • vouluntary
    • it is sarcolemma
    • they are striated, with bands of muscle fibers made of actin and myosin
  72. what are the characteristics of smooth muscles?
    • microscopically smooth, with irregular bundles
    • may be innervated by one nerve or multiple nerves, depending on function
    • involuntary
  73. what are the characterisitcs of the cardiac muscle?
    • straited like skeletal
    • the striation join together in bundles that allow coordinated action
    • involuntary and autorhythmic
  74. what is slow twitch muscle fibers?
    fatigue resistant fibers. generate ATP aerobically
  75. what is fast twitch muscle fiber?
    • somewhat fatigue reistant, and generate ATP aerobically
    • type 11B are fatigable fibers. generate ATP anerobically
  76. what is the neuromuscular joint?
    the place where the nerve meets the muscle or another nerve 
  77. what is a motor unit 
    innervation of the motor neuron. composed of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it supplies
  78. what forms the striate in the skeletal muscle?
    it has striated apperance because of the repeating structure of the muscle.  there are many myofibrils, each one of which is made up of repeating units called muscle sarcomeres
  79. what forms intercalated discs in cardiac muscles?
    intercalated discs represent junctional complexes between adjacent cardiac muscles.  made up of fascia adherentes, desmosome, and gap junction
  80. which type of muscles has the least capacity of regeneration?
    cardiac muscle has no regenerative capacity. damage in the heart muscle are replaced by the connective tissue, forming myocardial scars
  81. what is purkinjes fiber?
    they are fiber branches that extend from the artioventricular bundles. relays cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract.
Card Set
midterm exam