1. Automatic processing:
    Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequency
  2. Effortful processing:
    Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
  3. Visual Encoding:
    Encoding of picture images
  4. Acoustic Encoding:
    Encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
  5. Semantic Encoding:
    Encoding of meaning, including the meaning of word
  6. Long-term potentiation:
    The synaptic enhancement after learning. An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthen of synapses. The neuro works are stronger the more you know about something and the more you want to go to the synaptic
  7. Flashbulb Memory:
    A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
  8. Amnesia:
    memory loss
  9. Explicit memory:
    Refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
  10. Implicit memory:
    involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows
  11. Recall:
    retrieve information learned earlier
  12. Recognition:
    identify previously learned items

    • Relearning:
    • the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
  13. Priming:
    the wakening of associations

    • Deja vu:
    • a feeling of already have experienced a present situation
  14. Mood-congruent memory:
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one�s current mood.
  15. Atkinson & Schiffrin Stage Theory of Memory:
    Three stages: a)Sensory memory b) Short Term c) Long term
  16. Sensory memory:
    sense organs have a limited memory
  17. Iconic memory:
    visual memory - less than a second
  18. Echoic memory:
    auditory memory - 3 -4 seconds
  19. Learning:
    a change in an organism�s behavior due to experience
  20. Associative learning:
    learning that
  21. Behaviorism:
    the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
  22. Conditioning:
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
  23. Unconditioned stimulus (US):
    a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
  24. Unconditioned response (UR):
    the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (ex: salivation when food is in the mouth)
  25. Conditioned stimulus (CS):
    an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
  26. Conditioned response (CR):
    the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
  27. Acquisition:
    the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus take place
  28. Higher-order conditioning:
    a new neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus new
  29. Extinction:
    the diminishing of a CR, occurs in classical conditioning when an US does not follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
  30. Spontaneous recovery:
    the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR
  31. Generalization:
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  32. Discrimination:
    the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an US
  33. Operant Conditioning:
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  34. Respondent behavior:
    behavior that occurs as a automatic response to some stimulus
  35. Operant behavior:
    behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
  36. Law of effect:
    Thorndike�s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  37. (Working Memory):
    memory that lasts long enough to use the info - 30 -sec - 3 min max if rehearsed//Limited Storage Capacity -magic number - 7+ / -2 bits of information
  38. Chunking:
    �blocks� of information that can be stored in short term memory- chunking stimuli into a meaningful group becomes one unit of information - Short term memory can be increased using this method
  39. Declarative memory vs. Procedural memory:
    Declarative: Factual Information, Procedural: Memory for skills and habits
  40. Behavior genetics:
    The study of the relative power and limits of genetics and environmental influences on behavior
  41. Environment:
    Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  42. Chromosomes:
    Thread like structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
  43. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid):
    A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
  44. Genes:
    The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
  45. Genome:
    The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism�s chromosomes
  46. Identical twins:
    Twins who develop from a singled fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organism
  47. Fraternal twins:
    Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are no closer genetically than brothers and sister, they just share fetal environment
  48. Temperament:
    A person�s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  49. Heritability:
    a proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of trait may very, depending on the range of populations and environment studied
  50. Interaction:
    The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
  51. Molecular genetics:
    The sub-field of biology that studies the molecular structure and functions of genes
  52. Evolutionary psychology:
    The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles
  53. Natural selection:
    The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
  54. Mutation:
    A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
  55. Gender:
    In psychology, the biologically and socially influence characteristics by which people define male and female
  56. Culture:
    The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  57. Personal space:
    The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
  58. Individualism:
    Giving priority to one�s own goals over group goals and defining one�s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than groups identifications.
  59. Collectivism:
    Giving priority to goals of one�s group and defining one�s identity accordingly.
  60. Aggression:
    Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
  61. X chromosome:
    The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two; males have one. female = XX
  62. Y chromosome:
    The sex chromosome found only in males. male =XY
  63. Testosterone:
    Most important male sex hormone. Both females and male have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
  64. Role:
    A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  65. Gender role:
    Set of expected behavior for males or for females.
  66. Gender identity:
    Our sense of being male or females
  67. Gender typing:
    The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
  68. Social learning theory:
    The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
  69. Developmental psychology:
    Branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
  70. Zygote:
    fertilized egg (from conception to two weeks)
  71. Embryo:
    2 weeks through 8 weeks; the developing human organism
  72. Fetus:
    from 9 weeks to birth
  73. Teratogens:
    agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
  74. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS):
    the physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman�s use of alcohol
  75. Habituation:
    decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
  76. Maturation:
    the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
  77. Cognition:
    all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  78. Schema:
    A concept or framework that organize and interprets information
  79. Assimilation:
    Interpreting our new experience in term or our existing schemas
  80. Accommodation:
    Adapting out current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
  81. Sensorimotor stage:
    The stage (birth to 2 yrs old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activites
  82. Object permanence:
    the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceive
  83. Preoperational stage:
    The stage ( 2-7 yrs old) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
  84. Conservation:
    The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  85. Egocentrism:
    The pre-operational child�s difficulty taking another�s point of view
  86. Theory of mind:
    Peoples ideas about their own and others mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
  87. Autism:
    Disorder marked by communication deficiencies and repetitive behaviors
  88. Concrete operational stage:
    The stage of cognitive development (7-11 yrs old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
  89. Formal operational stage:
    Stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12 yrs old) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
  90. Stranger anxiety:
    The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning about 8 months of age
  91. Attachment:
    Biologically based bond between infant and caregiver that maintain proximity between them.
  92. Critical period:
    An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism�s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
  93. Imprinting:
    The process in which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
  94. Basic trust:
    Sense that the world is trustworthy, formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
  95. Self-concept:
    All thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in the answer to the question �Who am I?�
  96. Adolescence:
    Transition from childhood to adulthood, extending puberty to independence
  97. Puberty:
    Sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
  98. Primary sex characteristics:
    The body structures (ovaries, testes and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
  99. Secondary sex characteristics:
    Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breast and hip, male voice quality, and body hair.
  100. Menarche:
    First menstrual period
  101. Identity:
    Our sense of self; The adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
  102. Social identity:
    The �we� aspect of our self-concept; Comes from group membership.
  103. Intimacy:
    The ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary development task in late adolescence and early adulthood
  104. Emerging adulthood:
    Period of late teens and early twenties; bridging gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood
  105. Menopause:
    The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  106. Cross-sectional study:
    A study in which people of different ages are skills; tends to increase with age??
  107. Longitudinal study:
    Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
  108. Crystallized intelligence:
    Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
  109. Fluid Intelligence:
    Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly--decreases during early adulthood
  110. Social Clock:
    Culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
  111. Cerebellum:
    A neural system in the hindbrain that process implicit memories
  112. Loftus and Loftus (1980):
    Through brain stimulation, memories that were etched in the brain on a handful of patients reported seeing flashbacks
  113. Lashley (1950):
    After removing part of rat�s brains they were still able to remember parts of a maze
  114. Kandel and Schwartz (1982) and Aplysia:
    showed that Serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning
  115. Retrieval:
    Process of pulling specific memory of long term storage How we store information has significant impact on how or whether we are able to retrieve it when we need it.
  116. Associated models of memory:
    Says that our memory consists of representation of cluster of interconnected information
  117. Encoding specificity principle:
    The closer the environment you are in is to the environment that you learned something in, the more likely you are to remember it.
  118. Place dependent learning:
    Environment is similar
  119. State dependent learning:
    the internal state or environment is similar.
  120. Forgetting:
    Any process that leads to failure of memory
  121. Failure of encoding:
    Did not encode the memory, we cannot remember what we fail to encode.
  122. Decay theory:
    Memory lost due to non-use of it. Memory trace fades then disappears
  123. Interference theory:
    Some information in memory interferes or blocks the recall of other information in memory.
  124. Proactive interference:
    old information blocking the recall of new information
  125. Retroactive interference:
    New information blocks the old
  126. Schemas:
    previous experiences
  127. Cognition:
    all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
  128. Concept:
    mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, and people.
  129. Prototype:
    a mental image, or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category.
  130. Algorithm:
    step by step procedures that guarantee a solution.
  131. Heuristic:
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier - but also more error-prone than algorithms.
  132. Insight:
    a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. It contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
  133. Confirmation Bias:
    a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
  134. Fixation:
    the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.
  135. Mental set:
    a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
  136. Functional fixedness:
    the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
  137. Representativeness heuristic:
    judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
  138. Availability heuristic:
    estimating that likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind; we presume such events are common.
  139. Overconfidence:
    the tendency to be more confident than correct - to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
  140. Belief perseverance:
    clinging to one�s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
  141. Intuition:
    an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
  142. Framing: the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
  143. Language:
    our spoken written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
  144. Phoneme:
    the smallest distinctive sound unit
  145. Morpheme:
    the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be part of a word.
  146. Grammar:
    a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  147. Semantics:
    the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
  148. Syntax:
    the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  149. Babbling stage:
    beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
  150. One-word stage:
    the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
  151. Two-word stage:
    beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
  152. Telegraphic speech:
    early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram. �Go car� - using mostly nouns and verbs.
  153. Aphasia:
    impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca�s area, or to Wernicke�s area.
  154. Broca�s area:
    controls language expression - an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
  155. Wenicke�s area
    controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
  156. Linguistic determinism:
    Whorf�s hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
  157. Noam Chomsky:
    Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, & thus most of it is inborn (genetically predisposed); hypothesized that we have a specialized area of the brain called Language Acquisition Device or LAD that allows us to learn language quickly
  158. Intelligence test:
    a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
  159. Intelligence:
    mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
  160. General intelligence (g):a
    general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
  161. Factor analysis:
    a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person�s total score.
  162. Savant syndrome:
    a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
  163. Creativity:
    the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
  164. Emotional intelligence:
    the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
  165. Mental age:
    a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does well as the average 8 year old is said to have a mental age of 8.
  166. Stanford-Binet:
    The widely used American revision of Binet�s original intelligence test.
  167. Achievement tests:
    a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
  168. Aptitute tests:
    a test designed to predict a person�s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
  169. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS):
    The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
  170. Standardization:
    defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
  171. Normal curve:
    the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
  172. Reliability:
    the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
  173. Validity:
    the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
  174. Content validity:
    the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
  175. Predictive validity:
    the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
  176. Intellectual disability:
    (formerly referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adaption to the demands of life, varies from mild to profound.
  177. Down syndrome:
    a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
  178. Heritability:
    the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a traits may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
  179. Stereotype threat:
    a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
  180. Operant chamber: skinner box
  181. Shaping:an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
  182. Components of Operant Conditioning
    B.F. Skinner
  183. Reinforcer: any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
  184. Positive Reinforcement:
    increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food--strengthens the response Add desirable stimuli
  185. Negative Reinforcement:
    increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. When negative reinforcement is removed after a response, it strengthens the response. (not a punishment) Removes adverse stimuli
  186. Primary Reinforcer:
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (Food, warmth, shock)
  187. Conditioned Reinforcer:
    a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
  188. Shaping: Reinforcers guides behavior to desired behavior.
  189. Schedules of Reinforcement
  190. Continuous Reinforcement:
    reinforcing desired response every time it occurs
  191. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement:
    reinforcing response only part of the time. It has greater resistance to extinction later on
  192. Fixed-ratio Schedule:
    a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. ex: piece work pay, coffee shop rewards with free drink after 10 purchases
  193. Variable-ratio Schedule:
    provides reinforcers after an unpredicitable number of responses. ex: gambling, lottery
  194. Fixed-interval Schedule:
    reinforces the first response after a fixed time period. ex: checking frequently for mail as delivery approaches. Tuesday discount prices.
  195. Variable-interval Schedule:
    reinforces first response after varying time interval (random). ex: checking email
  196. Punishment:
    used to decrease behaviors; positive = bad things happen in response to the behavior; negative = good things are taken away in response to the behavior
  197. Cognitive map:
    mental representation of environment
  198. latent learning:
    learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it. ex: child learns from watching parent but demonstrates learned behavior later as needed (or when it feels necessary)
  199. Intrinsic motivation:
    desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
  200. Extrinsic motivation:
    desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats/punishment.
  201. Observational Learning:
    learning by observing others
  202. Modeling:
    the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  203. Mirror neurons:
    when you observe other persons experiencing something. frontal lobe neurons fire and make you feel the same. ( imitation/empathy)
  204. Prosocial behavior:
    positive constructive helpful behavior
  205. Memory:
    The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval information
  206. Information-Processing Model:
    • a computer�s information-processing system is similar to human memory.
    • Encoding --> Storage --> Retrieval
    • Keyboard --> Disk --> Monitor
  207. Acquisition/Encoding:
    process by which we get information into our brains
  208. Elaborative Rehearsal:
    thinking about meaning vs just definition - tying it to things that are already known
  209. Spacing Effect:
    Distributed study or practice tend to yield better long-term retention
  210. Serial Position Effects:
    Our tendency to recall the last and first items in a list
  211. Primacy effect :
    After a delay, shift from recalling the last items, being able to recall the first items with more ease.
  212. Recency effect :
    Being able to recall the most recent (last) things more quickly a
  213. Working memory -
    a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual - spacial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory -
  214. Space:
    While reading a book, you automatically encode the place of a pic on a page.
  215. Time:
    Intentionally note events that took place in a day
  216. Frequency:
    Effortless keep track of thing that happen to you.
  217. Declarative memory vs. Procedural memory:
    • Declarative: Factual Information
    • Procedural: Memory for skills and habits
  218. Episodic memory vs. Semantic memory:
    • Episodic: Memory for biological of our lives (experiences and specific events)
    • Semantic: Memory for general knowledge about word meanings and fact about the world, as well as memory for rules of logic that allow us to deduce other facts.
  219. Explicit memory vs. Implicit memory:
    • Explicit: Intentional or conscious recollection of information
    • Implicit: Memory we are not aware of. Example skill that happen automatically.
  220. Hippocampus:
    A neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories
  221. Intelligence quotient:
    defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (Thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
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exam 2 psych 101