Drugs and Society

  1. some stimulants are natural substances produce by plants
    • Cocain from the leaves of the coca plant
    • nicotine from tobacco plant leaves
    • caffeine from coffe bush berries (beas) tea leaves and cola nuts
  2. physical effects of sitmulants on the body
    • release of adrenaline (epinephrine) into the blood from adrenal glands
    • increased release of norepinephrine at autonomic synapses
    • increased heart rate blood pressure and breathing rate
    • sweating dry mouth and idalated pupils
    • insomina and decreased appetite
    • high doses can lead to jaw clenching and teeth grinding
  3. mental/emotional effects of stimulants
    • increased alertness and attention
    • elevated mood confidence self-esteem even euphoria
    • high doses can lead to irritability restlessness and in extreme cases baranoid thoughts and psychoses
  4. stimulants produce these mental and emotional effects by
    increasing synaptic levels of dopamine and morepinephrine in the cenral nervous system
  5. during binge use
    the body's energy reserves are depleted
  6. after the crash eases
    an in ability to feel pleasuer (anhedonia), lack of energy (anergia) and intese craving can initiate another binge cycle
  7. The coca plant (erythroxylon coca)grows mainly
    • on the slopes of the andes mountains
  8. Drinking Cocain
    cocain was isolated from the leafe of the coca bush in 1859 and cocain hydrochloride was added to many patent medicines and elixirs
  9. Vin Mariani
    • red wine laced with cocaine
    • endorsed by thomas edison and president william mckinley
  10. from 1886 to 1903
    coca-cola contained 5 milligrams of cocaine
  11. Smoking cocaine
    when cocain hydrochloride is converted to freebase cocain it lowers the vaporization point to 8 degrees celcius and makes the drug smokable using glass pipes and lighters.
  12. Dirty basing
    using simple household products such as bakin soda water and heat to precipitate crystals called crack
  13. Metabolism
    because cocain is metabolized very quickly by the body its peak effects last for about 40 minutes or less
  14. medical use of cocaine
    • cocain is the only naturally occurring topical anesthetic that also constricts local blood vessels
    • used to numb the nose eye or throat during surgery
  15. polydrug use occurs
    • when users turn to downer like alcohol valium or heroin to ease the intense irritation and restlessness causes by binge use.
    • of particualr concern is the formation of cocaethylene a byproduct formed by the liver when very high levels of both alcohol and cocain are present in the blood
  16. adulteration of cocaine
    procaine has numbing effects similar to cocain byt it does not cross the blood brain barrier.
  17. overdose of cocaine
    • very rapid heart beat
    • chest pain
    • hyperventilation
    • accompanied by a feelin of impending death.
  18. death from cocaine is usually from
    • cardiac arrest
    • sezure
    • stroke
    • respiratory failure
    • severe hyperthermia
  19. long-term use
    • can cause stroke
    • heart damage is caused by reduced blood flow to hear muscles
  20. crack cocaine epidemic was related to a number of factors
    • smoking cocaine is delivered to the brain faster
    • smoking is more socially acceptable
    • sold in smaller more affordable units
    • poor neighborhoods became saturated with crack houses
  21. amphetamines
    are synthetic stimulants whose effects can last 4-6 hours
  22. different types of amphetaine molecules
    • d,l amphetamine (adderall)
    • dextroamphetamine (dexedrine)
    • methamphetamine (methedrin)
    • dextromethamhetamine
  23. amphetamines were first synthesiezed in
    1887 by a german chemist trying to produce an adrenaline substitute
  24. amphetamines relax the smooth muschle lining the lung bronchioles and they wer used medically
    in the 1930s to treat asthma
  25. amphetamine tablets were used in
    WWII by american british german and japanese soldiers
  26. in 1970 ___ to __ percent of americans used prescription amphetamines for weight loss
    6 - 8
  27. Effects of amphetamines
    • increased heart rate respiration and blood pressure
    • deplete in energy supplies after extended use
    • prolonged use leads to lethargy depression and paranoia hallucinations and other effects
    • used by secually active people but extened use results in a diminished sex drive
    • binges or runs produce high energy followed by a crash
  28. steps of treatmentx
    • detoxification
    • initial astinence
    • long-term abstinence
    • recovery
  29. amphetamine congeners
    are stimulant drugs that are chemically dissimilar but pharmacologically related to amphetamines
  30. Methylhenidate (ritalin) is
    • the most widely used amphetamine congener
    • it is most often prescribed for ADHD
  31. three subtypes of ADHD
    • ADHD combined type
    • ADHD  predominantly inattentive type
    • ADHD  predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
  32. ADHD predominantly inattentive type symptoms
    • inattention to details
    • difficulty sustaining attention
    • doesn't follow through on tasks
  33. ADHD impulsivity symptoms
    • often blurts out answers
    • interupts or intrudes on others
    • has difficulty awaiting a turn
  34. ADHD hyperactivity symptoms
    • often fidgets or squirms
    • leaves seat runs about
    • talks excessively
    • has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities
  35. between __ and __ percent of all school age children in the US could be diagnosed with ADHD and it is at least two to three times as prevalent in ___ as in  ____
    • 3 - 7
    • boys - girls
  36. low dosses of stimulants
    increase synaptic levels of dopamine and norepinephrine thus improving the ability to focus attention which also reduces anxiety and hyperactivity
  37. drugs prescribed for ADHD
    • methylphenidate (ritalin)
    • d-amphetamine (adderall)
  38. coffee drinkin spread form ___ and ___ to ___ in the 1400s
    turkey and arabia to europe
  39. caffeine
    is the most popular stimulant in the world
  40. withdrawal from caffeine symptoms
    headache and sleepiness
  41. caffeine works by
    blocking the receptors for adenosine a natural brain chemical that causes drwsiness
  42. 1 demitasse espresso =
    1 Vivarin tablet =
    1 can Spike Shooter =
    • 200mg
    • 200mg
    • 300mg
  43. tobacco introduced to europe by
    christopher columbus
  44. __mg is absorbe in the lungs from smoking a cigarette while __mg is absorbed by mucus membranes in the mouth from a chew of tobacco
    • 1mg
    • 4.5mg
  45. tobacco tolerance begins
    after only a few hours of smoking
  46. withdrawal of tobacco causes
    • headaches
    • irritability
    • craving
  47. nicotine disrupts
    neurotransmitter balance: endorphins, dopamne and acetylcholine
  48. nicotine effects
    • constricts blood vessels
    • raises heart rate
    • depresses appetite
    • produces a mild euphoria
    • deadens senses
  49. carbon monoxide accelerates the process of
    atherosclerosis with is the hardening and narrowing of arteries supplying blood to the heart
  50. ____ percent of men and ____ percent of woment with lung cancer smoke
    • 85
    • 75
  51. chewing tobacco increases levels of
    gum disease and increases rates of throat mouth and esophageal cancer
Card Set
Drugs and Society
test 2