________ refers to the
process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body,
metabolized, and then excreted from the body.
Which pair of drugs below are known to facilitate and inhibit (respectively) the release of ACh?
black widow spider venom; botulinum toxin
Which pair of drugs below are antagonists for the muscarinic and nicotinic (respectively) receptors?
Match the drug with its correct action on GABA function.
muscimol; direct agonist at the GABAA receptor
Deprenyl may delay the progression of symptoms in Parkinson's disease because this drug
inhibits monoamine oxidase-B.
Injecting an animal with a
dose of a chemical molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis of a
synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to
increase the rate of synthesis and release of that neurotransmitter.
The significance attached to glutamate, GABA, and glycine is that these are
the most common neurotransmitters in the CNS.
Which neurotransmitter acts to facilitate learning?
Benzodiazepines and alcohol increase the effectiveness of GABA receptors.
The term "direct antagonist" is synonymous with "receptor blocker."
Botox injections smooth the face by
blocking the activity of muscles in the face.
A key difference between neuropeptides and monoamine neurotransmitters is that neuropeptides
Which neurotransmitter acts to promote vigilance?
Stimulation of a presynaptic autoreceptor
reduces the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal.
The primary means by which the postsynaptic action of acetylcholine is terminated is via
enzymatic destruction by acetylcholinesterase.
A key stimulus for the release of adenosine from brain cells is
an energy/oxygen deficit in cells.
Which pair of transmitter substances is most involved in synaptic neurotransmission in brain?
Which of the following
neurochemical effects may contribute to the capacity of ecstasy (MDMA)
to produce hallucinogenic effects in users?
MDMA blocks serotonin reuptake and causes serotonin transporters to run in reverse.
A(n) ________ is an innocuous substance that has no specific physiological effect.
Acetylcholine is inactivated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
Which neurotransmitter activates voluntary movements and reinforces behavior?
Learning is facilitated by ACh activity in the basal forebrain.
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Withdrawal from ________ can result in seizures due to the loss of inhibitory action on ________ receptors.
A person who is admitted to a hospital emergency room with an opiate overdose is likely to be treated with
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced from
THC interferes with concentration and memory and can distort our sense of time.
________ causes pupil dilation by blocking ________ receptors.
Which of the following neuron systems that use ACh has been related to the control of REM sleep?
dorsolateral pons ACh system
Which of the following true of NMDA receptors?
Activation of the NMDA receptor allows sodium and calcium ions into the nerve cell.
Administration of a drug that blocks acetylcholinesterase in the brain would be expected to
increase the amount of acetylcholine in the synapse.
A drug that blocks or slows reuptake of a transmitter substance is termed an antagonist.
________ is the synthesis precursor for dopamine.
A drug that releases a transmitter substance is called an antagonist for the synapse.
Which of the following is true of GABA?
The inhibitory effects of GABA act stabilize brain electrical activity.
The final synthesis step for norepinephrine requires the presence of ______ .
Two conditions associated with abnormal brain dopamine levels are
Drugs that block or inhibit postsynaptic receptor effects are termed
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease
can be treated using L-DOPA.
Caffeine produces excitatory effects via
blockade of adenosine receptors.
The muscle weakness associated with myasthenia gravis reflects
loss of ACh receptors on skeletal muscles.
Black widow spider venom releases ACh from neurons.
Serotonin is synthesized from
Drugs that inactivate monoamine oxidase would be expected to
increase dopamine levels within neurons.
Imagine that you are
suffering from severe pain and that you have the opportunity to request a
drug to alleviate the pain. Which of the following drugs should you ask
Administration of a drug that binds with a postsynaptic receptor, but does not open ion channels would be termed a(n)
Treatment with a drug that inhibits MAO may slow down the progression of Parkinson's disease because
MAO may metabolize environmental chemicals into toxins that damage dopamine neurons.
________ refers to a pleasurable drug feeling that is "easy to bear."
________ refers to the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior.
A drug that blocks a presynaptic autoreceptor
The term "opioid" refers to ________, while the term "opiates" refers to ________.
endogenous chemicals; exogenous drugs
Parkinson's disease involves the degeneration of neurons within the ________ DA system.
The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for the synthesis of norepinephrine.
Drugs that facilitate postsynaptic receptor effects are termed
Direct agonist is to direct antagonist as
endogenous opioid is to naloxone.