Drugs and Society

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  1. two main groups of sedative-hypnotics
    benzodiazepines and the barbiturates
  2. prescribed to
    • control neurotic reactions
    • control anxiety
    • hypertension
    • reduce seizure activity
    • induce sleep
  3. sedatives
    produce a calming effect on mood and behavior and are often prescriobed to reduce anxiety
  4. hypnotics
    are short acting drugs designed to induce sleep
  5. sedative-hypnotic drugs bind to receptors for the neurotransmitter
    GABA and enhance the receptors response to GABA which is called the brains natural or endogenous sedative. neurons that release GABA play an important role in preventing regions of the brain from becoming over excited
  6. since sedative-hypnotics increase teh effects of
    GABA on target neurons these drugs can reduce the activity of neurons in brain regions that generate anxiety the relief from tension and anxiety produces a state of euphoria which can lead to abuse and addiction it also increases the release of dopamine by neuons int he reward/pleasure circuit
  7. Choral Hydrate
    was sold in drug stores as btha a sedative and hypnotic in 1869. it was slipped into drinks (giving someone a Mickey Finn)
  8. Barbiturates
    first developed at en of the 19th century thought of as alchohol in a pill
  9. Examples of Barbiturates
    Phenobarbital a slow acting drug whose effects can last for 12-24 hours
  10. First benzodiazepines to be manufactured and marketed on a large scale
    • Chlordiazepoxide (librium)
    • Diazeam (valium)
  11. Benzodiazepines are used to treat
    • symptoms of anxiety and panic disorders
    • anxiety in surgical patients
    • sleep disorders
    • spasms and seizures
  12. the most widely prescribed benzodiazepines are
    • Alprazolam (xanax)
    • Lorazipam (Ativan)
    • Diazepam (valium)
  13. Nonmedical use
    often abused in combination with alcohol or by stimulant abusers to help the come down from excess stimulation
  14. Tolerance
    develps as teh liver becomes mor efficient in processing the drug. for older patients the liver does not process teh drug as quickly and this can lead to over medication for the elderly
  15. The benzodiazepine ______ has been associated with this form of date rape
    • rohypnol
    • in 1996 the FDA banned all imports of this drug
  16. Withdrawal symptoms
    • insomnia
    • tramors
    • rebound anxiety
    • a patient should never abruptly stop taking their medication and should follw thier doctor's instructions for slowing reducing dosages over time
  17. overdose
    is more likely to occur when benzodiazepines are combined with other downers epecially alcohol.
  18. overdose symptoms
    • extreme drowsiness and loss of consciousness
    • slow shallow breathing
    • slowing heart rate
    • reduced blood pressure
    • coma or death can occur without immediate medical assistance and intervention
  19. GHB (Gamma Hydroxybutyrate
    used as leep inducerin the 1960s because it is thought ot increase levels of human growht hormone it was promoted by body builders. gained popularity as a club drug to enhance the effects of alcohol and ecstasy.
  20. Z-hypnotics
    • Zaleplon (sonata)
    • Zopiclone (imovane)
    • Zolpidem (ambien)
  21. Syergism
    don't mix drugs. if more than one downer drug is used the poly drug cmbination can cause a much grater reaction than simply the sum of the effects.
Card Set
Drugs and Society
test 2
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