Drugs and Society

  1. Three major classes of depressant drugs
    • opioids/opiates
    • sedative-hypnotics
    • alcohol
  2. opiates
    drugs refined from raw opium. opium is the milky fluid of the unripe seed pod of the opium poppu (papaver somniferum)
  3. major opiates found in opium are
    • morphine
    • codeine
  4. semi-synthetic opiates (chemical variationsof morphine and codeine)
    • diacetylmorphine (heroin)
    • hydrocodone (vicodin)
    • oxycodone (oxycontin)
    • hydromorphone (dilaudid)
  5. opioids (fully synthetic)
    • methadone
    • meperidine
    • propoxyphene
    • fentanyl
  6. oral ingestion
    opium was originally chewed, eaten or mixed with liquids and swallowed
  7. smoking
    16th century explorers and traders introduced the pipe to Europe and Asia
  8. _______ blockading its ports from ________ trading ships selling opium
    • China
    • English
    • (opium wars, 1839-1842 and 1856-1860)
  9. refinement of morphine, codeine and heroin
    • 1805 morphin was isolated from opium
    • 1874 chemists altered the morphine molecule to produce hroin (diacetylmorphine)
  10. injection 1853
    development of the hypodermic needle (1853)
  11. snorting
    today over half of all heroin addics in treatment started their habit by insufflations (snorting)
  12. 1906
    Pure Food and Drug Act
  13. 1914
    Harrison Narcotics Act
  14. United States consumes only __% of the world supply of opium
  15. Afganistan grew __% of the worlds opium
  16. only other significant grower of opium is the Golden Triangle consisting of _________, __________, and ________
    • Myanmar
    • Thailand
    • Laos
  17. In US most heroin comes from
    Mexico and Columbia
  18. Physicians prescribe opioids to
    • deaden pain
    • control coughing
    • stop diarrhea
  19. Pain
    Substance P is the neurotransmitter released by neurons in spinal cord pain pathways to signal tissue damage.
  20. During intense pain
    neurons release endorphins and enkephalins that block the release of Substance P and dampen pain sensation
  21. Opiate/Opioid drugs are able to...
    bind to and activate endorphin receptors and mimic our natural pain reduction system
  22. Endorphins also
    dampen mental pain such as fear and anxiety producing a calm and detached mood
  23. Cough suppression
    opioids bind to receptors in the brain stem that control the cough reflex
  24. Control of Diarrhea
    opioid drugs reduce gastric secretions and slow contractions of smooth muscles lining the intestines so that life-threatening fluid loss is reduced
  25. Side Effects of Opioid Drugs
    • constipation
    • pupil constriction
    • drooping eyelids
    • relaxed muscle tone
    • dry, itchy skin
    • vomiting
  26. Tolerance
    people seeking mental effects such as euphoria might need 10 times their original dosage after a month of regualr use
  27. Withdrawal Symptoms
    • fever, chills, and goose bumps
    • intestinal cramps and diarrhea
    • bone and joint pain
    • muscle cramps
    • insomnia
    • intense craving
  28. Withdrawal from short-acting drugs like heroin and morphin,
    produces the sudden onset of severe symptomes which begin 8-10 hours after the last doese and peak within 48 hours.
  29. If the fetus becomes tissue dependent for heroin
    birth suddenly cuts the newborn's drug supply and withdrawal symptoms appear.
  30. Overdose
    severe respiratory depression is the major cause of overdose death with opioids
  31. Symptoms of opioid overdose
    • blue lips and pale or bluish skin
    • slow shallow breaths with fluid rattles or gasps
    • very constricted pupils that look like pin pricks
    • skin feels cold and clammy
  32. in some overdoses an injection of an
    opioid receptor antagonist such as naloxon narcan
  33. Dirty and shared needles cause
    • hepatitis B or C
    • endocarditus
    • flesh-eating bacteria
    • Hiv virus that causes AIDS
  34. Dilution
    heroin is always cut street drugs can vary from 0-99% pure
  35. Heroin
    (diacetylmorphine) use is a world-wide problem
  36. types of heroin incllude
    • china white
    • persian brown
    • black tar (often smoked)
  37. Codeine
    not as strong as morphine generally used for relief of moderate pain or to control coughs
  38. Methadone
    (dolophine) long lasting opioid which is taken orally to reduce hroin craving and reduce withdrawal symptoms
  39. Hydromorphone
    (dilaudid) semi synthetic opioid refined from morphine it is 8 TIMES MORE POTENT THAN MORPHINE
  40. Oxycodone
    (oxycontin) time release form of oxycodone
  41. hydrocodone
    (vicodin) today is the most abused oral pain reliever
  42. Meperidine
    (demerol) short acting opioid usually injected
  43. Fentanyl
    (sublimaze) most powerful pain killer available (50-100 times stronger than morphine)
  44. Designer heroin
    street versions of fentanyl known as china white are made without controls and can be very dangerous
  45. Naloxone and Naltrexone
    opioid receptor antagonist which block the effects of opioids and can be used to reverse a heroin overdose
Card Set
Drugs and Society
has major classes of depressants