History Unit 3

  1. a. Who was Socrates? 
    b. Dates? 
    c. Beliefs?
    d. What study method did he develop? 
    e. Why was he charged with impiety and corruption of the young? 
    f. What was his sentence?
    a.     Lived from 470-399 B.C.E.

    b.    Fought in Peloponnesian War

    c.     Believed in absolute truths of justice, truth, and excellence

    • d.    Went against idea of moral relativism (whatever is right at the time is right for
    • the person

    e.     Developed Socratic method- questioning and refuting his student’ s answers

    • f.      People were scared that he was anti-democracy so he was put on trial and charged with
    • impiety and corruption of the young

    • i.     Corruption of the young- Socrates was Alcibiades’s teacher
    • ii.     Impiety- no basis for this charge

    g.     Sentenced to death and given poison called hemlock
  2. a. Who was Plato? 
    b. Dates? 
    c. What is he known for? (What did he establish?) 
    d. What did he believe was the ideal government and form of rule? 
    e. Famous book he wrote?
    a.     Student of Socrates

    b.    427-347 B.C.E

    c.     Established an academy in Athens to educate young students in philosophy

    d.    Believed that an educated elite should rule.

    e.     Wanted philosopher kings

    f.      Thought ordinary people should choose a wise group to make decisions on their behalf

    • g.     Wrote The Republic where he criticized
    • democracy and called for city-states to be run under an autocracy with a wise
    • king as the ruler
  3. - Who was Aristotle? 
    - Dates?
    - Who's tutor was he?
    - What were his beliefs? (4 main ones)
    a.     Was the private tutor of Alexander

    b.    384- 322 B.C.E. 

    • c. Beliefs
    • i.     Anti-barbarian (foreigner)
    • ii.     Very nationalistic and pro Greek
    • iii.     Believed in small, restricted city states with limited number of people and a mixed
    • constitution
    • iv.     Believed in moderation or “golden mean”
  4. - Who was Isocrates? 
    - Dates?
    - Beliefs?
    a.     Athenian orator

    b. 436 - 338 B.C.E. 

    • c.    Beliefs
    • i.     Believed King Phillip was the sole leader that could unite the Greeks against the Persians into one large empire
  5. - Who was Demosthenes? 
    - Dates? 
    - Belief? 
    a.     Athenian Orator (better than Isocrates)

    b.    (384-322)

    • c.     Opposed King Phillip’s tyrant ideas in order to preserve Athen’s traditional freedom
    • and self government of  the polis
  6. - Who was Thales? 
    - Dates? 
    - Belief? 
    a. Scholar from Miletus 

    b. 624-548

    c. Believed in orderly cosmos that people could understand and caused by water (single primal element that could explain the cosmal unity) - wrong but the concept of an orderly universe was pivotal for the future of western thought
  7. - Who was Democratus? 
    - Dates? 
    - Beliefs? 
    a. 460-370 

    b. Believed in infitite universe of tiny atoms - not supported in Ancient Greece but later proven by 20th Century Physicists 
  8. - Who was Pythagoras? 
    - Dates? 
    - Fled? 
    - Contribution to world? 
    - Belief of world? 
    a. mathemetician and philosopher 

    b. 582 - 507 

    c. Fled from Ionia to Italy 

    d. mathematics and astronomy - pythagorean theorem 

    e. order of universe was based on numbers - math key to understanding reality 
  9. What philosophy of understanding the world did Pythagoreas, Thales, and Democratus reject? 
    Rejected the mythopoeic way of understanding the world
  10. Who were the Ancient Greeks suspicious of? 
    Suspicious of those who studied the world whilel seemingly ignoring the Gods
  11. - Who was Aeschylus?
    - Dates? 
    - What battle did he fight in?
    - First to do what?
    a. Playwright

    b. 525 - 456

    c. First to use props and two actors

    d. wote Persians - which shows how the Persians loss in the Persian War was caused by their arrogance (Cerses hubris) and thus warns the Athenians not to let their own arrogance bring their destruction

    e. Also wrote Orestia - trilogy 
  12. - Who was Sophocles? 
    - Dates? 
    - Best known for?
    - Moral of his plays? 
    a. Most admired Playwright of all time

    b. 496 - 406

    c. Known for Theban Plays series that centered around the mythacal creature called Oedipus - some elements were the King of Thebes, a plague, and the Riddle of the Sphinx

    - Antigone / Oedipus Rex / Oedipus Ad Colonus and Ajax

    d. Moral of plays - reminder not to feel complacent in their own lives 
  13. - Who was Euripedes? 
    - Dates? 
    - What work is he known for and what did those works teach? 
    - What did he foretell? 
    a. playwright 

    b. 485 - 406 B.C.E

    • c. Wrote Women of Troy and Medea - expressing intense pessimism and lack of devine moral order that marked Athens after the Peloponnesian War 
    •  - Women of Troy is about captured Trojan Women - criticism of Athens' treatment of Melos and enslavement of Greek women and children 

    d. predicted the ultimate downfall of Athens
  14. - Who was Aristophanes? 
    - Dates? 
    - Works known for?
    a. Playwright

    b. 455 - 385

    • c. Comedies that had serious political messages such as anti-war
    • - Lysistrata (hilarious anti-war play = > women of Athens refused to have sex until the men complied - teaching that life and sex more important than death and war) written at height of Pelopennesian War 

    - Clouds
  15. What is the Festival of Dionysus? 
    Festival held every year in Athens where eight playwirhgts would show serious and comedic plays 
  16. What were the three orders of the classic Greek buildings by 600? 
    a.     Doric- The oldest of the three. It had a simple capital on top of a fluted column. Prevalent in mainland Greece.

    b.    Ionic- Developed in Ionia on the eastern Mediterranean. Taller thinner columns with elegant scroll shapes on top.

    c.     Corinthian- developed later (400s). Thin columns with leaf shapes on the capital.
  17. What was the Parthenon? 
    The largest temple in the Acropolis located on the highest point and dedicated to Athena. Built by Pericles from the treasury of Delos. 
  18. - Who was King Phillip and what are his dates? 
    - Where was he held hostage and for how long? 
    - What did he do when he returned to Macedonia? 
    - Battles? 
    - When does he become king and what does he do? 
    - What was one of the achievements during his life? 
    - What does he conquer with this new army? 
    - Who was he married to? 
    - How did he die and who became king? 
    - Who was his tutor?
    1.   King of Macedonia who Lived from 359-336

    2.   Held hostage in Thebes for three years

    • 3.   Returned to Macedonia, and reorganized
    • military. He developed siege weapons like the torsion catapult to conquer city with closed walls. (Also the Sarissa - long pikes more than 13 inches and crossbow) And united Macedonia. 

    • 4.   Battles
    • - 371- Battle of Leuctra - Thebean victory shattered immense influence over the Greek penincula which Sparta gained since its victory in the Peloponnesian War

    - 362-  Battle of Mantinea - Epaminondas dies and Spartans defeated hedging the way for hedgemony over Greece

    - 338- Battle of Chaeronea  - Macedonians conquered Athens and Thebes when Phillip’s phalanx engulfed Greeks.  Phillip forced to form alliance with all of Greece except Sparta- League of Corinth

    5.    Becomes King in 359 and kills all of his rivals including his family. 

    6. Gold was discovered during his reign  and uses it to build his army - paid professionals

    7. He conquers Thessaly and northern Aegean and Epirius  

    8. Married six wives (including Olimpius) and at the wedding of one of his daughters, Cleopatra

    9. One theory is that Olimpius killed him another is that he was assassinated by his servant named Pausanias and Alexander became King.

    10. Epaminondas was his tutor - General of Thebes 
  19. 1. Who was Alexander the Great? 
    2. Dates? 
    3. Tutor? 
    4. In 334 where did he advance and who did he fight? 
    5. When he turned south he continued to conquer what cities? 
    6. In 332 he went into Egypt and created what city? 
    7. In 331 he encounters Darius again and what happens? 
    8. What did he die from? 
    9. What were his goals? 
    10. Horse's name? 
    1. Son of Phillip who becomes King of Macedonia 

    2. 356 - 323 (life) -  337 - 327 Ruled 

    3. Aristotle

    • 4.   334- He advanced into Asia Minor, where he
    • fought Persians, lead by Darius III, at Battle of Issus. He defeated Persians there, and Darius fled, leaving wife and children behind.

    • 5. Turned south and went about conquering
    • cities along Phoenician Coast (Sidon, Tyre, and Gaza)

    • 6. Went into Egypt and conquered unchallenged
    • in 332 and created the city Alexandria

    • 7. Encountered Darius again at Gaugamela in 331. Even though Macedonians were extremely outnumbered to Persians, Alexander’s brilliance led them to victory again. Then went to Persepolis, took money, and burned it to the ground. Darius was assassinated, and Alexander
    • became great King of Persia.

    • 8.   Started drinking and was weakened by it. He
    • then caught a horrible fever and died.

    • 9. Goals
    • a.     Rule over unified people and not conquered people

    b.    Established cities in conquered areas

    • c.     Encouraged intermarriage between Persians and Greeks and intermarried himself (married
    • Roxane)

    d.    Adds Persian soldiers to his army 

    10.  Horse named Bucephalus
  20. What were the successor kingdoms? 
    • 1.     Ptolemaic Kingdom
    •         a.    Centered around Egypt
    •         b.    Alexandria became ultimate city of Hellenistic     
    •                 world
    •         c.   Ptolemy was the first ruler

    • 2.     Seleucid Kingdom
    •         a.    Seleucia, 50 miles north of Babylon, became  
    •                capital city
    •         b.    Many Greeks and Macedonians came here to live
    •         c.    Largest of the three kingdoms
    •         d.    Ruled by Seleucus

    • 3.     Antigonid Kingdom
    •          a.   Smallest of the three
    •          b.  Centered around Macedonia (northern Greece)
    •          c.   Ruled by kings called antigonids (descended from
    •               antigonus the one-eyed)
Card Set
History Unit 3
History Test 3