Psych exam

  1. Abilities of Concrete Operations
    Identity, Reversibility, Compensation, Math operations, Negation (sarcasm)Class Inclusion, Relations between objects, Temporal-Spacial Relations, Seriation
  2. Accommodation
    Occurs when individuals adjust to newinformation
  3. Animism                    
     According to Piaget, young children believe that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action.          
  4.  Assimilation
                According to Piaget, this occurs when individuals incorporate new information into their existing knowledge.
  5. Associative play        
    Parten’s theory that play that involves socialinteraction with little or no organization.
  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    A disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: (1) inattention, (2) hyperactivity, and (3) impulsivity.
  7. Attention 
                The focusing of mental resources associated with the Sensory Register of the Information Processing Theory of Memory.
  8. Authoritarian parenting 
    According to Baurmind’s theory, restrictive punitive style, with firm limits and controls on child and little verbal exchange with  child.
  9. Authoritative parenting            
                      According to Baurmind’s theory, parents encourage independence but place limits and controls on child's behavior.
  10. Autonomous morality    
                      According to Piaget’s theory of moral development, the child  becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
  11. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
     The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development           
  12. Beginning Identity
                                       This Piagetian concept represent the child’s first abilities to understand that an object can change its appearance without changing its basic nature, for example, a ball of clay is till the same clay even it is changed into a rabbit.
  13. Beginning Function
    This Piagetian concept represents the child’s first abilities to understand how things work together to cause a certain action for example, if you push the button, the light will turn on.
  14. Binet      
                                   This individual was a French psychologist who invented the first usable test to predict which children would benefit from public education. Essentially this test was adapted into the IQ test.
  15. Brown’s 5 stage theory 
        A theory of language development that describes increasing MLU from 1 MLU at 12 months to around 4 MLU at 3 ½ years.
  16. Centration           
        According to Piaget, young children focus attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others. 
  17. Cephalocaudal pattern  
                      The sequence in which the greatest growth occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth in size and weight and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom.
  18. Chunking
    This is a way individuals organize and make sense of information in STM. One is illustrated when someone remembers the separate numbers 1   8   1   2   1   7   7   6 as the dates 1812 and 1776.
  19. Concrete Operations
    : The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. 
  20. Conservation  
             In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's  appearance does not change its basic properties.
  21. Constructive play          
    Combines sensorimotor and repetitive activities with symbolic representation of ideas.
  22. Conventional reasoning    
     The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards, laws, or conventions held by others such as parents or the laws of society. 
  23. Convergent thinking 
    Thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests.
  24. Cooperative play
     According to Parten’s theory, combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas.
  25. Creative thinking      
    The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.
  26. Divergent thinking   
       Thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is  characteristic of creativity.
  27. Dyslexia      
     A category of learning disabilities that involves a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell.
  28. Egocentrism          
     The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (salient feature of the first substage of preoperational thought). Piaget used a the "Three Mountain Task," to test this.
  29. Friendship     
       A form of close relationship that involves enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, and spontaneity.
  30. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory       
        This theory of intelligence states that intelligence is not one cluster of abilities, but several leading to multiple "intelligences" as opposed to a general intelligence factor among correlated abilities. Since 1999, Gardner has identified eight intelligences: linguistic, logic-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Gardner is still considering a ninth, existential intelligence
  31. Gifted                      
     Having above‑average intelligence (an IQ of 120 or higher) and/or superior talent for something.
  32. Heteronomous morality                 
      Piaget’s first stage of moral development in which justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
  33. IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education ActIDEA
    was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education, just like other children.  The law has been revised many times over the years.
  34. Imminent justice                 
      The concept that, if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately. The social and psychological dimension of being male or female.
  35. Information‑processing theory                
       Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it memory is conceptualized to process like information in a computer.
  36. Initiative vs. Guilt         
     The third stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychsocial development.
  37. Intelligence quotient (IQ)            
         Developed by Terman, a person's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100.
  38. Intelligence              
       Problem‑solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to the experiences of everyday life.
  39. Intimacy in friendships                  
     Self‑disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts.
  40. Intuitive Thought substage           
        Piaget's second substage of preoperational thought—a child begins to reason primitively.
  41. Learning disability           
     Disadvantaged condition that consists of three components: average or above average IQ level paired with significant difficulty in school‑related area; and exclusion of other disorders (i.e., emotional, sensory, and neurological).
  42. Life expectancy      
      The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year.
  43. Long‑term memory           
     A relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time.
  44. Mental retardation            
     A condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70, on a traditional test of intelligence, and has difficulty adapting to everyday life.
  45. Moral development            
      Development that involves thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
  46. Morpheme          
      The smallest semantic unit or meaningful unit in a language.
  47. Neglectful parenting                     
        A style of parenting, according to Baurind’s theory,  in which the parent is uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self‑control.
  48. Normal distribution                       
      A symmetrical distribution with most cases falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and a few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.
  49. Onlooker play
      According to Parten, Play in which the child watches other children play.
  50. Operations               
     In Piaget's theory, internalized sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they formerly did physically. Operations are absent in Pre-operations and develops fully in Concrete Operations.
  51. Organization/Categorization                      
     Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher‑order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system during concrete operations; the grouping or arranging of items into categories.
  52. Parallel play            
       According to Parten, child plays separately from others, perhaps mimicking others' play.
  53. Phonology                
     The sound system of a language. Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound in a language.
  54. Post-conventional reasoning                       
    The highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code.
  55. Practice play                        
      Play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports. 
  56. Pragmatics               
     The appropriate use of language in different contexts.
  57. Pre-conventional moral reasoning            
      The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment and takes the self into consideration to the exclusion of others.
  58. Preoperational stage
     Piaget’s second stage occurs roughly between the ages two and seven. Language development is one of the hallmarks of this period. Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people, which he termed egocentrism.
  59. Pretense/symbolic play                    
     The child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
  60. Proximodistal pattern                     
     The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.
  61. Recursion
     The concept researched by Brown to describe the ability to combine sentences within each other. Interestingly, the older the child the more likely he/she is to say more in less space (i.e., older children can use the word “can’t” meaning “cannot.”
  62. Rehearsal or Cognitive Rehearsal
    This represents a way to consciously keep information in STM or Working Memory. It is illustrated by mentally repeating the information over and over to one’s self. For example continually repeating, “a loaf of bread, a container of milk, and stick of butter” to yourself.
  63. Reversibility Awareness
     that actions can be reversed. An example of this is being able to reverse the order of relationships between mental categories. For example, a child might be able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a dog, and that a dog is an animal.
  64. Semantics                  
     The meaning of words and sentences.
  65. Semi-logic thinking:
      Children’s thinking and reasoning at this age is called semilogical because their logical reasoning is limited. Three-, four-, and five-year-olds are unable to keep in mind more than one relationship at a time.
  66. Sensory Register           
     A stage in the information processing theory that describes how people attend to, sort, and code incoming data through the senses.
  67. Seriation           
     According to Piaget, the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length).
  68. Short‑term memory                        
     The memory component in which individuals retain information for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal.
  69. Social contract or utility and individual rights    
    The fifth Kohlberg stage. At this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law.
  70. Social play               
       Involves social interaction with peers.
  71. Solitary play            
     Play in which the child plays alone and independently of others according to Baumrind’s theory.
  72. Symbolic function substage                        
     Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which a child can mentally represent an object that is not present.
  73. Syntax                       
    The way words are combined to form acceptable phases and sentences.
  74. Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence 
    This theory of intelligence consists of three areas of intelligence: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.
  75. Terman
     He is best known as the inventor of the Stanford-Binet IQ test and the initiator of the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius.
  76. Unoccupied play                  
      According to Parten, a child might stand in one spot or performs random movements that do not seem to have a goal.
  77. Wechsler
     This individual published an IQ test 1939 and was designed to measure both verbal and non-verbal aspects of intellectual performance.
  78. Working memory                
      Closely related to short‑term memory but places more emphasis on mental activity; refers to a kind of "workbench" area where the brain can manipulate and assemble information—making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language
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