exam 2

  1. platysma
    cutaneous cheek/neck muscle, ventral to pinna, dorsal/lateral neck
  2. brachiocephalicus
    muscle that goes from the side of the neck down the shoulder to the arm.  Extrinsic.  Pulls arm forward, pulls head and neck laterally.  Consists of cleidobrachialis
  3. superficial pectoral
    extrinsic muscle of thoracic limb.  adductor of front leg.  Keeps it under animal.  upper 'V' of chest
  4. deltoid
    intrinsic, cranial-lateral shoulder, below trapezius.  Abducts and flexes
  5. Trapezius
    Thin cranial extrinsic muscle covering shoulder blade.  Elevates and abducts the forelimb
  6. Latissimus dorsi
    extrinsic rib-flap muscle.  Flexes the shoulder, pulling animal forward
  7. Serratus ventralis
    serrated rib muscle.  Extrinsic, sling that supports the body between forelegs. 
  8. deep pectoral
    extrinsic muscle of thoracic limb. adductor of front leg. Keeps it under animal. lower 'V' of chest
  9. external intercostals
    outer between-rib muscles.  Inspiratory.  Caudoventral. 
  10. rectus abdominus
    6-pack muscle.  separated by linea alba, ensheathed by aponeuroses of other muscles.  Sternum to prepuce
  11. external abdominal oblique
    outside of ventral abdomen.  caudoventrally
  12. sartorius
    cranial thigh muscle.  wraps medial and lateral sides.  Most superficial
  13. tensor fascia latae
    muscle that attaches to fascia latae, superficial to vastus lateralis, flexes hip, extends stifle
  14. superficial gluteal
    gluteus maximus.  Extends hip, abduct limb.  smaller and caudal to middle gluteal
  15. medial gluteal
    gluteus medius, extensor of hip, abductor of limb, larger and more cranial than superficial
  16. Biceps femoris
    lateral-most back-of-thigh muscle. Propel animal forward when walking
  17. semimembranosus
    2nd-most-medial back-of-thigh muscle.  Propel animal forward when walking
  18. semitendinosus
    2nd lateral-most back-of-thigh muscle.  propel animal forward when walking
  19. Supraspinatus
    Cranial scapular muscle.  Extends shoulder joint.  Intrinsic
  20. Biceps brachii
    Deep (window) brachial popeye muscle.  Intrinsic.  Flexes elbow. 
  21. Brachioradialis
    intrinsic forearm muscle. Runs along cephalic vein.  Supinates paw. 
  22. Extensor carpi radialis
    intrinsic forearm muscle.  between brachioradialis and common digital extensor.  extends carpus and flexes elbow. 
  23. common digital extensor
    intrinsic.  Caudal to extensor carpi radialis, next to lateral digital extensor.  Splits into four distinct tendons that extend digits.  Extends carpus and digits. 
  24. lateral digital extensor
    intrinsic.  between common digital extensor and lateral ulnar.  Splits into 4 tendons that are deep to the common digital extensor's.  Flexes carpal joint, extends digits. 
  25. lateral ulnar
    intrinsic.  between common digital extensor and flexor carpi ulnaris.  Only flexor that attaches to lateral epicondyle.  Flexes carpal joint. 
  26. flexor carpi ulnaris
    between lateral ulnar and SDF.  Most caudal.  2 heads. 
  27. superficial digital flexor (thoracic)
    intrinsic.  Between 2nd head of flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi radialis.  Divides into 4 under-wrist tendons.  Flexes digits and carpus
  28. Flexor carpi radialis
    between SDF and pronator teres.  Superficial to DDF.  Muscle belly only goes to middle of forearm.  Flexes carpus. 
  29. pronator teres
    obvious triangle on caudal side of forearm.  pronates the paw. 
  30. triceps brachii
    caudal brachium, four heads (long, medial, lateral, accessory).  Elbow extensor.  Intrinsic
  31. Rhomboid
    Extrinsic.  deep to trapezis (scapula).  draws shoulder dorsocranially
  32. teres major
    Caudal scapula.  Intrinsic.  Flexes shoulder
  33. infraspinatus
    caudal shoulder between supraspinatus and teres major.  Flexes shoulder and abducts thoracic limb.  Intrinsic
  34. Cleidobrachialis
    portion of brachiocephalicus below the clavicle. 
  35. serratus dorsalis caudalis
    serrated muscle, dorsal part of caudal-most ribs.  Expiratory. 
  36. serratus dorsalis cranialis
    insignificant inspiratory muscle over the dorsal part of ribs.  Small.  Pulls ribs forward
  37. Scalenus
    cervical vertebrae to first rib.  Inspiratory.  Under serratus ventralis
  38. Internal abdominal oblique
    second layer of abdominal muscles.  Very thin.  cranioventral. 
  39. transverse abdominus
    third layer of very thin abdominal obliques.  runs dorsoventrally. 
  40. gracilis
    medial-most back-of-leg muscle. 
  41. vastus lateralis
    lateral head of quadriceps femoris.  Under fascia latae
  42. rectus femoris
    cranial, superficial head of quadriceps femoris
  43. vastus medialis
    medial head of quadriceps femoris
  44. vastus intermedius
    deep to rectus femoris.  Head of quadriceps femoris. 
  45. gastrocnemius
    calf-like muscle.  2 heads, with sesamoids.  Propels body forward.  extension of tarsus and flexion of stifle. 
  46. cranial tibial
    shin-bone muscle.  tendon veers off to medial side and attaches to plantar part of digits.  Flexes the tarsus
  47. long digital extensor
    underneath cranial tibial.  divides into four tendons.  Extends digits of pelvic limb, flexes tarsal joint and extends stifle. 
  48. keel
    part that sticks out of a bird's sternum.
  49. bird's ulna
    the big forearm bone
  50. bird's radius
    the smaller forearm bone
  51. tibiotarsus
    tibia and fibula of a bird
  52. tarsometatarsus
    metatarsal bone.  Cannon bone-like. 
  53. Alula
    little thumb for steering on a bird
  54. fetlock joint
    equine between cannon and long pastern
  55. pastern joint
    equine between long pastern and short pastern
  56. coffin joint
    joint between short pastern and coffin bone
  57. long pastern
    P1 on a horse
  58. short pastern
    P2 on a horse
  59. trochlear tubercle
    bump above patella.  Location of stay apparatus. 
  60. Coffin bone
    P3 on a horse
  61. navicular bone
    distal sesamoid behind coffin bone
  62. cornea
    clear layer over eye, part of fibrous layer.  Allows light into eye.  Pain receptors but no blood vessels. 
  63. sclera
    white of eye.  Part of fibrous layer
  64. lens
    transparent bioconcave structure behind iris, focuses image on retina with help of ciliary body
  65. aqueous chamber
    posterior and anterior chambers in eye
  66. vitreous chamber
    jelly-filled cavity in inner eye between lens and retina. 
  67. choroid
    vascular layer between sclera and retina.  Supply blood to retina
  68. retina
    back inside of eyeball.  Contains rods and cones. Nervous layer of the eyeball. 
  69. tapetum lucidum
    iridescent part of choroid (vascular layer).  Helps animal see in low light by reflecting back.  Causes animal eye shine. 
  70. Iris
    Colored part of eye.  Part of vascular layer containing pupil. Behind cornea, in front of lens. 
  71. Pupil
    opening at center of iris.  Circular.  In nocturnal animals, a slit that closes completely.  In iris in vascular layer. 
  72. Ciliary body
    ring-shaped structure located immediatly behind iris in the vascular layer of the eyeball.  Consists of tiny muscles that adjust the shape of the lens to allow near or far vision. 
  73. lateral and medial canthus
    corners of eye where lids meet. 
  74. conjunctiva
    membrane lining sclera and inner eyelid. 
  75. nictating membrane
    third eyelid located medially between eyelids and eyeball. 
  76. Pinna
    part of ear seen from outside.  Funnel into external auditory canal
  77. External auditory canal
    L-shaped part of outer ear.  Ends at tympanic membrane
  78. Tympanic membrane
    ear drum.  Membrane across external auditory meatus that vibrates with sound waves. 
  79. External auditory meatus
    hole in side of skull where tympanic membrane is. 
  80. Ossicles
    malleus, incus, stapes.  Link tympanic membrane with cochlea
  81. Eustachian tube
    auditory tube that connects middle ear with pharynx.  Equalizes pressure. 
  82. Cochlea
    snail-like structure (4 parts) of inner ear that causes hearing.  Attaches to stapes. 
  83. Vestibule
    between cochlea and semicircular canals.  Used for equilibrium (linear).  (Utriculus, saccules and semicircular ducts) 
  84. semicircular canals
    (anterior, posterior, lateral).  attach to vestibule in inner ear, rotational equilibrium
  85. external ear
    consists of pinna, external auditory canal and tympanic membrane
  86. middle ear
    consists of eustachian tube and ossicles
  87. inner ear
    consists of cochlea, vestibule and semicircular canals
  88. sciatic nerve
    huge nerve in inner thigh. 
  89. base of heart
  90. apex of heart
    bottom--pointy part
  91. epicardium
    outer lining of heart.  Same as visceral serous membrane. 
  92. endocardium
    lining of chambers inside heart
  93. myocardium
    muscle tissue of heart
  94. Right atrium
    top 1st chamber of the heart.  Cranial and caudal vena cava and coronary artery empty into the right atrium.  contains vena caval sinus and coronary sinus, and foramen ovale remnant.  Tricuspid valve. 
  95. left atrium
    top 2nd chamber of the heart.  pulmonary vein empties here.  Bicuspid valve
  96. left ventricle
     bottom chamber of heart with thicker wall.  Leaves here through aorta (aortic semilunar valve), enters through bicuspid/mitral valve. 
  97. right ventricle
    lower chamber of heart with thinner wall.  Smaller.  blood enters through tricuspid valve and leaves through pulmonary semilunar valve into pulmonary trunk
  98. ductus arteriosus
    in babies, where pulmonary artery connects with aorta, bypassing lungs
  99. ligamentum arteriosum
    remnant of the closed ductus arteriosus; ligament that attaches pulmonary artery to aorta. 
  100. foramen ovale
    dip in septal wall where atria used to be open. 
  101. tricuspid valve
    Between right atrium and right ventricle. 
  102. mitral valve
    between left atrium and left ventricle
  103. semilunar valves
    ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk have them. 
  104. auricles
    flaps on top of heart (cranial view) containing pectinate muscles that help hold valves open. 
  105. pulmonary trunk
    Large artery from right ventricle to lungs.  Splits into pulmonary arteries. Has semilunar valve
  106. pulmonary artery
    branch off pulmonary trunk heading to a lung. Only artery with deoxygenated blood
  107. pulmonary vein
    dumps into left atrium.  Only vein with oxygenated blood. 
  108. ascending aorta
    main artery leading out of left ventricle, beginning of systemic circulation
  109. chordae tendinae
    heart strings stopping valves from everting.  Held by papillary muscles
  110. papillary muscles
    hold chordae tendinae to stop valves from everting. 
  111. circulation of blood through heart
    • cranial/caudal vena cava
    • right atrium
    • tricuspid
    • right ventricle
    • pulmonary semilunar
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmonary artery
    • lungs
    • pulmonary vein
    • left atrium
    • bicuspid/mitral
    • left ventricle
    • aortic semilunar
    • aorta
  112. coronary groove
    depression the coronary artery sits in.  Winds around base of heart to empty into right atrium
  113. coronary arteries
    sit in coronary groove circling base of heart.  Pump into right atrium.  Bring heart muscle blood. 
  114. coronary sinus
    depression in right atrium that coronary artery empties into
  115. vena caval sinus
    area in right atrium that vena cavae empty into. 
  116. paraconal interventricular groove
    huge groove in front of heart, diagonal toward apex
  117. subsinuosal interventricular groove
    big groove in back of heart, diagonal toward apex
  118. cerebrum
    big wrinkly portion of brain
  119. optic nerve
    middle nerves on ventral part of brain
  120. trigeminal nerve
    most caudal nerves on ventral brain
  121. gyrus
    folds of brain
  122. sulcus
    lines of brain
  123. cerebellum
    cauliflower at back of brain
  124. pons
    dip in bottom center of brain
  125. midbrain
    pons to diencephalon
  126. diancephalon
    round part of ventral brain, just deep to medulla oblongata
  127. medulla oblongata
    part of midbrain that turns into spinal cord
  128. spinal cord
    bundle of nerves coming off back of brain
  129. arbor vitae
    "tree of life" shape inside cerebellum
  130. corpus callosum
    white part in center of brain that connects two halves and makes them talk
  131. olfactory bulb
    front of brain, where front nerves go. 
  132. frontal lobe of cerebrum
    under frontal bone
  133. parietal lobe of cerebrum
    under parietal bone. 
Card Set
exam 2
anatomy lab muscles, heart, brain, eye, ear, horse leg, bird skeleton