Biomedical Core

  1. What are the four tissue types?
    • Epithelial Tissue
    • - Forms coverings protecting the body from the outside world.
    • -Remember that the lumen (opening) of the gut tube is "outside".
    • Connective Tissue
    • -Holds structure of body
    • Muscular Tissue
    • -Moves body parts
    • Nervous Tissue
    • -Sensation, information processing, and control of body parts
  2. Epithelium cells have two surfaces:
    an apical surface that faces the outside world; and

    a basal surface that rests on, and is attached to, the basement membrane.
  3. The basement membrane, in turn, has two thin layers, each called a

    The basal lamina is the nearest the epithelial cells

    The reticular lamina is a bit deeper.
  4. Features of an Epithelium
    One free surface (apical surface)

    • One surface attached to basement membrane
    • -basal lamina
    • -reticular lamina

    • Underlying connective tissue:
    • Locations:
    • 1.Barriers to keep outside out and inside in.
    • 2.Barriers that secrete substances.
    • 3.Barriers for protection.
  5. Epithelia are usually classified by two adjectives follwed by the word "epithelium".  The first word describes the ________________. The second one describes the __________________________.
    arrangement of cells in the epithelium;

    shape of the individual cells at the apical surface of the epithelium.
  6. What are the arrangement of cells?
    Simple- the cells are a single layer, and all are in contact with the basement membrane.

    Pseudostratified- even though the cells appear to have layers, every one is in contact with the basement membrane.

    Stratified- cells have layers, so only the lowest layer is in contact with the basement membrane.
  7. What are the shapes of the cells?
    Squamous- cells, as the name suggests, are flat and shaped like fish scales. They are wider than they are tall.

    Cuboidal- cells are as wide as they are tall, like little ice cubes.

    Columnar- cells, like a column, are taller than they are wide.
  8. Transitional epithelia contain
    cells that change shape, depending on whether the organ is enlarged or shrunken.
  9. Naming Epithelia:
    Arrangement + Shape
    Three arrangements x three shapes = nine combinations.

    Two of these not used, but add transitional: cells that change shape = eight combinations.

    If different shapes present, always by shape of cells in apical (outermost) layer.
  10. Simple Squamous Epithelia
    Single layer of flat cells.

    • Locations:
    • -Lining of heart
    • -Lining of blood & lymph vessels
    • -Air sacs of lungs
    • -Kidney filtration
    • -Eardrum
    • -One layer of serous membranes
  11. A simple cuboidal epithelium is
    often found where secretion or absorption is taking place, as in glandular tissue.
  12. Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
    Single layer of cube-shaped cells.

    • Locations:
    • -Surface of ovaries
    • -Eye
    •      - Anterior surface of lens
    •      -Pigmented epithelium
    • -Kidney tubules
    • -Many glands
  13. Simple Columnar Epithelia
    • Single layer of column-like cells
    • -with or without cilia
    • -with or without microvilli
    • -with or without mucus (goblet cells)
  14. Simple Columnar Epithelia
         -Ciliated simple columnar locations
    Respiratory tract

    Uterine tubes/uterus

    Efferent ducts testes

    Some paranasal sinuses

    Canal of spinal cord & ventricles of brain
  15. Simple Columnar Epithelia
         -Nonciliated simple columnar locations
    GI tract

    Glandular ducts

Card Set
Biomedical Core
Module 1-6