1. what makes speech so complicated?
    • make sense of meaningless sensory input
    • separate speech sounds from environmental sounds
    • recognized words as the same across different speakers
    • intermodal factors are involved (like vision)
  2. phonomes
  3. syllables
  4. early exposure to speech sounds?
  5. do infants recognized speech prenatally?
    DeCasper study (1980)
  6. do infants recognized speech prenatally?
    DeCasper and Spence study (1986)
  7. do infants recognized speech prenatally?
    Moon et al. study (1993)
  8. do infants recognized speech prenatally?
    Kisilevsky et al. study (2003)
  9. McGurk Effect (illusory percept)
  10. Do infants use visual input in speech perception?
    4 month-old infants will look longer at a face making the correct articulation for the sound they are hearing than one that is not
  11. Infant Directed Speech (motherese)
    high pitch, exaggerated intonation contour (sing-song), short sentences, longer pauses between phrases, prosodic repetition
  12. infants directed speech serves the functions of:
    • maintaining attention
    • contributes to positive affect
    • signals linguistic units of native language
  13. IDS and parsing
    • IDS emphasizes the parts of speech that are important 
    • IDS helps infants to parse out separate sentences
  14. Hirsh-Pasek et al (1987) study on IDS and parsing
  15. Segmentation of Speech
    • As adults we segment speech into meaningful units! 
    •     Phrases within sentences
    •     Words within phrases (e.g. pretty baby)
    •     Syllables within words
    •     Phonemes within syllables
  16. Infant phoneme categorization:
    Eimas et al (1971) - landmark study
  17. Perceptually Constant Across Speakers:
    Kuhl and colleagues study
  18. phoneme selectivity:
    thompson study
  19. phoneme sectivity:
    da study
  20. speech production
    sound production in the newborn is constrained by the oral cavity and respiratory patterns

    vocal tracts of infants differ from adults

    • Articulation: 
    •     Infants can produce labial and dental consonants before velar consonants.
    •     They can produce back vowels before front vowels
Card Set
Lecture 11/7 Speech perception