- subordinate clauses that stand in some case relationship to the main verb
- ex. serving as the direct object(accusative) or subject(nominative)
- They act like a noun, an are similar to substantive adjectives
- Introduced by ut, quin, quod, ne, ni, and ne non
- Usually in the subjunctive
- After verbs of ordering (imperio), urging (adhortor), seeking (tendo), permitting (concedere), hindering (officio), deciding (constituere), attempting (temptare), striving (laboro), wishing (opto), fearing (vereor), or happening (accido)
- The action often seems in complete without the clause. ex. "I order them..." (to do what"
- Sometimes accusative + infinitive
- Follow rules for the sequence of tenses
- Caesar imperavit eis ne hoc facerent. "Caesar ordered them not to do this."
Purpose and Result Substantive Clauses
- Used as nouns.
- Cupio ne venias. "I desire that you not come." "I don't want you to come."
- Laborabat ut ex urbe discederet. "He was trying to depart from the city."
Quod Substanvive Clauses
- Usually in the nominative case
- Quod = because or which (relative)
- Often comes at the beginnig of a sentence.
- Quod homines colloquimur inter nos praestamus feris. "The fact that we humans speak to each other causes us to excel beasts"
- Verb mainly in teh indicative
Indirect Speech - Substantive Clause
Subject accusative and infinitive
- Composed of two parts: protasis (the thing set up beforehand) and apodosis (the thing that comes from/the thing that results)
- Protasis - if clause - subordinate to the apodosis - then clause
- The protasis introduced by si, sin = si non, nisi, etiam, si, estsi, tametsi, tamenetsi, or any relative pronoun
- Has 3 main types
- The fulfillment of the condition is open - nothing is implied about its truthfulness or accuracy
- indicative in protasis, indicative in apodosis
- Future or Future Perfect tense
- Almost always in the 2nd person
- Si vales, bene est.
- Si feceris id, magnum habebo gratiam
- Shows a supposition which may not be fulfilled - likely but not certain
- Present or Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, and usually also in apodosis
- Si vir bonus habeat hanc vim, hac vi non utatur
- Implies a situation which is contrary to known facts - unfulfilled
- Imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in protasis and imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in apodosis
- Imperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Present Contrary to Fact) "si servi mei metuerunt, domm relinquendam putarem"
- Pluperfect in both protasis and apodosis (Past Contrary to Fact) "si ibi te esse scissem, ad te ipse venissem"
- Imperfect and Pluperfect mixed "nisi ante Roma profectus esses, nunc eam certe relinqueres"
- Are subordinate clauses.
- Cum + indicative = "when" in time - no cause. Cum adve nit, laeti era mus. cum temporal and circumstantial clause: (When he arrived, we were happy.)
- Cum + subjunctive = "since/when" = b/c. cum causal clause: Cum adveni ret, laeti era mus. (Because/Since he arrived, we were happy.)
- Cum + subjunctive = "although" concessive main clause has "tomen". cum concessive clause: Cum adveni ret, laeti tamen era mus. (Even though/although he arrived, we were happy [anyway].)
- Temporal cum clause introduced by cum or ubi
Conditional Clauses Chart
- Future More Vivid - future perfect indicative - future indicative
- Future Less Vivid - Present subjunctive - future/present subjunctive
- Present Simple - present indicative - present indicative
- Present Contrary to Fact - imperfect subjunctive - imperfect subjunctive
- Past Simple - past indicative - past indicative
- Past Contrary to Fact - pluperfect subjunctive - pluperfect subjunctive
- Where conjunctions are omitted from a series of related clauses.
- veni, vidi, vici "I came, I saw, I conquered"
- Two words linked by a conjugation to express a single complex idea.
- Two for one and figure of twinnes
A sentence with three clearly defined parts - usually independent clauses and of increasing power.
Active Indicative Verbs
- Present - present stem(2pp) + o,s,t,mus,tis,nt
- Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bam,bas,bat,bamus,batis,bant
- Future - (1&2) presnt stem + bo,bis,bit,bimus,bitis,bunt (3,4&3i) present stem(2pp) + am,es,et,emus,etis,ent
- Perfect - 3pp + i,isti,it,imus,istis,erunt
- Pluperfect - 3pp + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
- Future Perfect - 3pp + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erint
Passive Indicative Verbs
- Present - present stem(2pp) + or,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
- Imperfect - present stem(2pp) + bar,baris,batur,bamur,batur,bantur
- Future - presnt stem + bor,beris,bitur,bimur,bimini,buntur
- Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + sum,es,est,sumus,estis,sunt
- Pluperfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + eram,eras,erat,eramus,eratis,erant
- Future Perfect - p + (s) tus,a,um (p)ti,ae,a + ero,eris,erimus,eritis,erunt
Active Subjunctive Verbs
- Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [She Reads a Diary]
- Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
- Perfect - perfect active stem(3pp) + eri + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt
- Pluperfect - perfect active infinitive(3pp) + m,s,t,mus,tis,nt [isse]
Passive Subjunctive Verbs
- Present - present stem(2pp) + 1(e),2(ea),3(a),4/3i(ia) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur [She Reads a Diary]
- Imperfect - present active infinitive(2pp) + r,ris,tur,mur,mini,ntur
- Perfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + present active subjunctive of sum (sim,sis,sit,simus,sitis,sint)
- Pluperfect - perfect passive participle(4pp) + imperfect active subjunctive of sum (essem,esses,esset,essemus,essetis,essent)
- Present - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (loving)
- Future - 4pp stem + ur + 2d noun endings (being about to love)
Perfect - 4pp stem + 1/2d noun endings (having been loved)
First Declension Noun Endings
- Nominative - a/ae
- Genitative - ae/arum
- Dative - ae/is
- Accusative - am/as
- Ablative - a/is
Second Declension Noun Endings
- Masculine (Neuter)
- Nominative - us(um)/i(a)
- Genitative - i/orum
- Dative - o/is
- Accusative - um/os(a)
- Ablative - o/is
Third Declension Noun Endings
- Masculine & Feminine (Neuter)
- Nominative - "/es(a)
- Genitative - is/um
- Dative - i/ibus
- Accusative - em(")/es(a)
- Ablative - e/ibus
Fourth Declension Noun Endings
- Masculine (Neuter)
- Nominative - us(u)/us(ua)
- Genitative - us/uum
- Dative - ui(u)/ibus
- Accusative - um(u)/us(ua)
- Ablative - u/ibus
Fifth Declension Noun Endings
- Nominative - es/es
- Genitative - ei/erum
- Dative - ei/ebus
- Accusative - em/es
- Ablative - e/ebus