Psychology Chapter 6

  1. Motivation
    an inner state that energizes behavior toward a goal
  2. Internal Factors
    push you toward or away from some object or activity
  3. External Factors
    pull you in a certain direction
  4. Instinct
    an unlearned inherited fixed pattern of behavior
  5. William McDougall
    • human behavior by a variety of instincts
    • problems with McDougall's approach: don't explain behavior just name them
    • most behaviors are learned or shaped by experience
  6. Homeostasis
    the tendency to keep psychological systems internally balanced by adjusting them in response to change
  7. Drive-Reduction Theory
    the idea that an imbalance in homeostasis creates a psychological need, which produces a drive that motivates the organism to satisfy the need
  8. Yerkes-Dodson Law
    a theory that states individuals perform best when maintaining an intermediate level of sensory stimulation
  9. Incentive Theory
    a theory propsoing that any stimulus that you think has either positive or negative outcomes for you will become an incentive for your behavior
  10. Incentive
    a positive or negative stimulus in the environment that attracts or repels you
  11. Intrinsic Motivation
    the desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
  12. Extrinsic Motivation
    the desire to perform a behavior because of promised rewards or the threats of punishment
  13. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • Maslow's ladder of human needs in which more basic psychological and safety needs must be satisfied before you are motivated to satisfy higher-level psychological needs
    • first two levels are physical, second two are psychological
    • with these levels Maslow believed you were moticated by a desire to overcome your feelings of being deprived of some kind of physical or psychological need
  14. Internal Controls
    three major control systems for hunger and eating are the bloodstream, the stomach, and the brain
  15. External Controls
    sight or small of food
  16. Culture...
    ...plays a role in how much and what you eat
  17. Restrained Eaters 
    • worray about and control how much food they eat
    • diet frequently, but struggle with "forbidden" yet desirable food, expecially if stressed
  18. Unrestrained Eaters
    not concerned about what they eat
  19. Set Point
    • a level of body weight that the body works to maintain¬†
    • genetic number of fat cells can influence your weight
  20. Obesity
    the excessive acculmulation of body fat
  21. Anorexia Nervosa
    an eating disorder in which a person weighs less that 85% of her or his expected weight but still expresses an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
  22. Bulimia Nervosa 
    an eating disorder in which a person engages in recurrent episdoes of binge eating followed by drastic measure to remove food calories from the body
  23. Eating disorders occur...
    ...10 times more in women than men
  24. Staying Healthy
    • avoid fad diets
    • avoid exposure to tempting food cues
    • eat "big" and healthy foods
    • exercise regularly
    • eat sensibly and slowly
    • reduce television viewing and computer time
    • be realistic and moderate
  25. Need to Belong
    • the need to interact with others and be socially acceptable
    • a.k.a the need for affiliations
    • spend 75% of our waking time with other people
  26. Rejection
    • stress, anxiety, decreased physical health all accompany rejection
    • studies show area of brain that controls physical pain lights up when someone is rejected
  27. Need to Achieve
    • a desire to overcome obstacles and meeet high standards of excellence
    • a.k.a the need for achievement
  28. David McClelland
    • desire to succeed
    • fear of failure
  29. Emotion
    a positive or negative feeling state that typically includes some combination of physiological arousal, conscious experience, and expressive behavior
  30. Autonomic Nervous System
    • produces the body's reactions associated with emotions
    • fight or flight
  31. Emotional Fainting
    • caused by the parasympathetic nervous system
    • known as passing out
  32. James-Lange Theory
    a theory that emotion-provoking events induce specific physiological changes in the autonomic nervous system that your brain automatically interprets specific emotions
  33. Cannon-Bard Theory
    a theory that emotion-provoking events simultaneously induce both physiological responses and subjective (personal perspective) states that are labeled as emotions
  34. Two-Factor Theory
    • a theory that experiencing an emotion is often baes on becoming physilogically aroused and then attaching a cognitive label to the arousal
    • if others are happy you are happy
    • your surroundings tell you how to define the physiological experience you are having
  35. Facial Feedback Hypothesis
    • Charles Darwin
    • proposes that specific facial expressions trigger the subjective experience of specific emotions
    • pen with lips or teeth experiment
  36. Social Rules for Expressing Emotions
    infulenced bycollectivist or individualist cultures that encourage or discourage expression of emotions
  37. Anger
    • a normal, healthy emotion
    • can get out of control: thiss is a bad idea. just leeting your anger freely go usually escalaes your feelings and your level of anger increases and your become more aggressive
  38. Calm Down Angry Feelings
    • stop, slow your breathing, repeat a calming phrase
    • cout it out until you chill-out
  39. Change the Way You Thinks
    • anger usually causes you to become negative, overly dramatic, and not very logical
    • work on being more positive
    • crying over spilled milk doesn't bring the milk back
Card Set
Psychology Chapter 6
Psych Ch. 6