1. How many millions of Americans are divorced? (Trend and Now)
    Increased consistently since 1970 (24M)
  2. How many Americans are divorced relative to maraiges
    Dirrectly correlated (going up) 2.2 and 1M Div.  Dwn for both since 80's (Recession? Skepticism?)
  3. Murder victims and their killers in the US (Who murders?)
    • Acquaintences? 54.4%  BF, Friend, GF
    • Family? 23.2%  Husband, Parents
    • Strangers 22.4%
  4. Children and their sexual abusers
    • Relative (43%)
    • Aquaintences (33%)
    • Stranger (24%)
  5. Kidnapper of Children
    • Relative (49%)
    • Acquaintance (27%)
    • Stranger (24%)
  6. Divorce as the consequence of eroded family functions
    • Economic production (Industrial rev- home-factory)
    • Socialization of children (Gov't takes over schooling)
    • Care of the sick (family-> gov't with hospitals etc.)
    • Recreation (Industrial revolution-> Public centered paid events)
    • Control of sexuality  (Sexual revolution- Alt's to marital sex)
    • Reproduction (Husband and wfe. Sex revo. Legal abortion and inrease of births to unmaried women)
  7. How husbands and wives split up fam responsibilities
    Women work more and lesss chores (60's-70's less due to electronic appliances), men work less and care for children more and do more housework
  8. Critical Constructionism
    A snthesis of conflict theory and social constructionist theory

    Conflict theory (Marx)-->

    Symbolic interactionist theory (Mead)->Social constructionism theory (Berger and Luckmann)-->

    All to Critical constructionism Antonio Gramsci 1891-1937
  9. The Social Heredity of violence
    Husband to wife and vice versa are about equal

    This greatly correlates with amount of violence as a teenager (1-10 scale)
  10. Evolution of the US rate of violence
    Increased greatly until 1990 (760/10,000 residents) then dropped off to 500/100,000 residents
  11. Family- 3 Characteristics
    • 1. Family is universal- hard to define because it caries from culture to culture
    • 2. Finding definition of family beyond cultural variety (ppl who consider fam by- blood, maraige, adopted)
    • Polygany, Polyandry (woman having more than one husband)-
    • 3. Classification of families
    • (Nuclear/extended)
    • procreation- fam formed when first child born
    • orientation- Family you grow up in
  12. Defining Maraige
    Finding definition beyond cultural variety

    - a group’s approved mating arrangements, usually marked by a ritual of  some sort (the wedding) to indicate the couple’s new public status
  13. States that legalized gay maraige
    Massachusetts, NY, New Hampshire, Vermont, Iowa, Connecticut, Washington DC
  14. Mate selection
    Norms to govern who is going to marry who
  15. Endogamy
    Marry someone within your group (incest is tabboo)
  16. Exodogamy
    Marry someone outside your group
  17. Finding a mate- the influence of the agents of socialization
    • Individuals and groups that influence our orientation to life from self concept to emotions attitudes and behavior-
    • i.e. Family, neighborhood, religion, daycare, school, media, work
  18. Mechanisms used to govern pattern such as:
    • Mate selection
    • Deccent and Inheritance
    • Authority
    • Theory of Partriarchy
  19. Descent and Inheritance
    Patrillinea;, matrillineal, bilineal (see handout?)
  20. Patrillineal
    Of, relating to, or based on relationship to the father or descent through the male line.
  21. bilineal
    Tracing descent through both the patriline and the matriline.
  22. Authority
    The power people consider legitimate- rightly exersisied over them
  23. Patriarch
    A group in which men as a group dominate women as a group; authority is then vested in males as a group (take men's last name, Friedl and Huber)
  24. Theory of Patriarchy
    1. Early Human Period- Physical limitation by childbirth of women (Short life, nurse babies- associates them with home care while men associated with being absent hunting)

    • 2. Men become more dominant/greater in prestige for their tasks- Risking their lives vs. safer woman routine
    • Conclusion: Men became more dominant due to greater prestige and once dominant took over society
    • 3 sources of power--> Weapons, items they trade and knowledge

    • 3. Men thought of themselves as superior to women naturally
    • Conclusion: try to mantain superiority, power and priveleges
  25. The scope of the social problem of divorce
    • Trend- More divorced since 1970
    • Four ways of measuring-
    • # of amreican adults getting married v. getting divorced
    • Dicorce rate
    •    "Crude" Annual divorces per 1,000 people
    •    "Refined" Annual divorces per 1,000 married people
    • % Americans currently divorced
    • % Americans ever divorced
    • 3. The "where" of divorce: Geographically
    • Reducing risk of divorce: 6 factors
    • College (-13%)
    • Religious affiliation
    • Parents not divorced (-14%)
    • Age 25 or over vs. under 18
    • Income: Under vs. over 25k
  26. Seven Agents of Socialization
    • Family
    • Neighborhood
    • Religion
    • Day Care
    • School/Peers
    • The Media
    • The workplace
  27.  Affects to divorce
    • College
    • Religious affiliation
    • Age at maraige
    • Parents divroced or not
    • Income
    • Baby 7 months or longar after maraige (before maraige
  28. fillicide
    one or both parents kill kid

    • Most extensive
    • Wives when kill more baby
    • Fr. More over 8
  29. parricide
    killing father or mother
  30. Types of physical fam violence
    • Marital Murder
    • Neglect
    • Marital/Child beating
    • Paracide
    • Honor killing
    • Kidnap
  31. Types of sexual family violence
    • Incest
    • Marital Rape
    • Genital Circumcision
    • Forced Prostitution
    • Child Pornography
  32. Extent of Family Violence
    • Depends on your definition of fv
    • Types
    • Extent in US 16% of spuses attack one another
    • Equally likely to attack Hub v Wfe
    • 85% injured are wivies
    • Murder- 6/7
  33. Marital Rape (how extensive?) Types?
    • 10%
    • During breakup

    • 3 types
    • Battering (most), nonbattering, perverted
  34. Most common insest
    • 20m
    • uncle, cousin, fr., brother, br. in law
  35. Socialogical theory
    A general statement about how some parts of society fit together and how they work
  36. First person to describe society as a living organism (whole unit made up of interrelated parts_
    Auguste Comte (1798-1857 Fr.)
  37. Functions and dysfunctions
    Robert Merton (1910-2003)- Optimist (No Manifest dysfunction)

    • Manifest- intended beneficial consequences of
    • peoples actions
    • Latent- unintended beneficial consequences of
    • peoples actions
    • Dysfunction- harmful consequences of peoples’ action

    Latent- unintended harmful consequences of peoples actions
  38. Latent
    Unintended Consequences
  39. Manifest
    Intended consequences of action
  40. Dysfunction
    Unintended consequences od peoples action
  41. Function
    Beneficial Consequences of peoples action
  42. Seven traditional functions of the family:
    • Economic Production
    • Socialization of children
    • Recreation
    • Sexual control
    • Reproduction
    • Care of the aged/sick
    • Reproduction

    - the effects of these factors led to eroded family functions

    - the more eroded family functions are, the more weakened are family bonds, the more divorces there are.
  43. 3 main factors of family social change in the Western World
    • Industrial revolution
    • Expansion of state power
    • Sexual revolution
  44. Conflict Theory
    • Karl Marx (1818-1883; Gr.)
    • Rep of society of groups engaging in comp for scarce resources

    • Struggle for power- 2 social classes that are natural enemies
    • Some group always gains power and oppresses groups under it

    • Bougeiosie owns means of production (surplus)
    • Proletariat works for it (labor force)

    -believed there would be an end of the struggle: a revolution leading to a classless and stateless society
  45. Feminist Theory
    70's; representation of society composed of power relationships between men and women

    importance of patriarchy throughout history

    1st type trouble experienced by the exploited i.e. poverty

    • 2md type Trouble experienced by the powerful when
    • the exploited react on resistance i.e. Strikes, riots, suicides
  46. Stages of Marx's theory
    • Dictatorship of bourgeoise
    • Revolution of the proletariat
    • Dictatorship of proletariat
    • Classless state
  47. Applying conflict theory to divorce
    • Femminist Theory of Divorce
    • Dictatorship of bourgeoise (some group gains top position and oppresses)- MEN due to repro labor- Men become breadwinners

    Industrial rev- women take jobs and change their view of world (less dependent

    Housework and childcare become a source of conflict

    Wives less willing to put up with unfulfilling relationship (more divorces)
  48. Applying functionalism to divorce
    • Divorce as the consequence of eroded family finctions
    • The more fam functiond eroded, hte more weak fam bonds, the more divorces there are (latent dysfunction)
  49. Symbolic interactionism
    George Mead (1863- 1931)

    a representation of society composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning; this develops their views of the world and communication with others

    A symbol includes signs gestures
  50. Social Construct Theory
    • Peter Bergman (1929-today USA)
    • Thomas Luckman (1927; Germany)
    • Reality doesn't come with built-in meanings; we construct our realities as we apply symbols to experienced
    • Social problems are "socially constructed"
  51. George Mead (Symbolic interactionism) 3 stages
    • Imitation
    • Play
    • Team play (6-7yrs old)
  52. Applying symbollic interactionism to divorce
    • Love symbol- affection, understanding and compatibility
    • Children symbol: from minurture adults to impressionalble, vulnerable and innocent beings
    • Parents Symbol: Nurturing children for many more years

    • Tremendous pressure on spouses creating "emotional overload" and therefore divorce
    • New symbols for divorce
    • Alternative Symbol "Unhappy mariages
    • Divorce symbol "new start"
    • Law symbol "relaxed laws"

    ->symbold both reflect and create reality
  53. Explinations of criminal violence
    • Biological
    • Cesare Lombroso- Criminal violence is inherited today: "genes of violence";?

    • Psychological Explination- deviant personalities
    • Sociological Explination- Social influences that recruit people to break the law violently
  54. Subculture of Criminal Violence
    • Martin Wolfgang
    • Subculture; values and related behaviors of a group that distinguishes its members from the larger culture

    Growing up in a subculture approving of violent behavior makes you violent

    • People expected to be violent (manly)
    • Manliness becomes connected with willingness to be violent
  55. "Differential Association"
    • Edwin Sutherland *1883-1950
    • From the different groups we associate with, we learn violence or nonviolence
    • The influence of social change
    • "Social hereditary of family violence" (Strauss Gelles and Steinmetz 1980)

    • "Control Theory"
    • -Most people are not violent because of two control systems (inner and outter) (Godfredson and Hirshi '90)

    Inner; Innefective child rearing- less capable of delaying gratification, less sensitive to needs of others, less willing to hold back impulses
  56. The Feminist Theory
    • Criminal violence and fears relatied to i are a way men keep patriarchy
    • Learning to associate power with masculinity and submissiveness with feminity
    • Gender: Behaviors and attitudes that a group considers proper for its male and female
  57. Sociobiological factor in criminal violence
    • Alchohol and violence
    • Alchoholic spouses have the highest rate of violence (Kantor and Straus 1987)
  58. Expllaining the indiggerence and cooperation of violence
    • The Milgram experiment
    • Obedience to authority
    • diffusion o responsibillity
  59. Why is family violence common?
    • Competing explanations of violence
    • Subcultures of violence
    • Differential association
    • Control theory
    • Femeinist Theory
    • Sociobiological factor
    • Explaining indiference in cooperation to violence
  60. The reactions to criminal family violence in the US
    • 1. The increase of US prison population since 70's
    •   -private prisons
    • 2.Explaining the increase of the us prison population
    •    -Less probation, 3 strike law
    • 3. Interpretting decrease in violence after 1990
    • nothing conclusive, drugs, jobs, age
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