patho II test 3

  1. leukemia is classified based on what two things
    • cells of origin (lymphoid and myeloid)
    • rate of progression (acute and chronic)
  2. difference between acute and chronic rate of progression
    • acute - undifferentiated or mature cells
    • chronic - cells are more differentiated but still does not function normally
  3. where does leukemia rank, in men and women, for 2012 estimated US cancer deaths
    6th in both
  4. what are the four major types of leukemia
    • acute lymphocytic
    • acute myelogenous
    • chronic lymphocytic
    • chronic myelogenous
  5. demographics of leukemia
    • adult
    • men
    • americans of European descent
  6. most common genetic translocation  in leukemia
    philadelphia chromosome
  7. environmental triggers for leukemia
    • cigarette smoke
    • benzene exposure
    • ionizing radiation
    • exposure to viruses
    • drugs that suppress bone marrow function
  8. what does "clonal disorders" mean
    one single progenitor cell undergoes malignant transformation and then that cell replicates
  9. pancytopenia
    • caused by overcrowding - a reduction in the normal cellular components of blood
    • E.g. anemia, thrombocytopenia, low levels of functional WBC's
  10. why are leukemias known as both proliferative and accumulation disorders
    • clonal disorders
    • pancytopenia
  11. what is philadelphia chromosome
    • "reciprocal"
    • long arm of chromosome 9 exchanged with the long arm of chromosome 22
    • present in 95% of people with CML and also lower rates in AML and ALL
  12. does a single translocation cause an aggressive leukemia
    usually not
  13. rates of leukemia are higher in what individuals (genetic)
    • downs
    • fanconi aplasitc anemia
    • bloom syndrome
    • trisomy 13
    • patau syndrome
    • immune seficiencies and X-linked disorders
  14. S&S of chronic leukemia
    • lymphadenopathy
    • infection
    • decreased neutrophils
    • bruising
    • maybe asymptomatic at time of diagnosis
  15. S&S of acute leukemia
    • fatigue
    • bleeding/bruising
    • fever
    • weight loss
    • decreased sensitivity to taste
    • liver, spleen, and lymph node enlargement
    • CNS involvement
  16. in the diagnosis of leukemia what will you see in the CBC
    lymphocytosis and neutropenia
  17. leukemia diagnosis, what are you looking for in the peripheral blood smear
    decreased RBC's
  18. what diagnositc test must be done for a definitive
    bone marrow biopsy
  19. an acute, self-limiting, neoplastci lympholiferative clinical syndrom
    infectious mononucleosis
  20. most common causative agent of infectious mononucleosis
Card Set
patho II test 3
test 3 leukemia