What entire system of the 3 neurons sending information called?
Neuronal Pathway or Reflex Arc
What is a mass of neurons and glial cells?
What is the central portion of Ganglion that contains only axons?
What is the location of cell bodies in a Ganglion called?
What three parts make up the Central Nervous System?
- Paired Ventral Nerve Cord
- Ventral Ganglia
What is the Primitive Condition of the 3 sections in the CNS?
1 Ganglion per segment
What are the three parts of the Brain?
- Proctocerebrum-Top Lobe
- Deutocerebrum-Middle Lobe
- Tritocerebrum-Lobe Leading out
What parts are found in the Protocerebrum? (3)
- Optic Lobes
- Neurosecretory Cells
- Mushroom Body-Learning
What part is found in the Deutocerebrum?
What Does the Tritocerebrum do?
Leads to Ventral Nerve Cord
What are 3 fused ganglia that innervate and control mouthparts?
What Ganglia innervate the wing and leg muscles?
What ganglia is the smallest and innervate visceral organs?
What are the 4 parts of the Stomatogastric Nervous System?
- Frontal Ganglion
- Hypocerebral Ganglion
- Ingluvial Ganglion
What doe the Brain, Frontal Ganglion, Hypocerebral Ganglion and Ingluvial Ganglion each control in the Stomatogastric Nervous System?
- B-Gut Region
- I-Gut Movement of Posterior Foregut and Midgut
What is the Section of the Eye called?
What 3 Apparatus are found in the Ommatidia?
What two things are found in the Focusing Apparatus
- Corneal Lens - Top
- Crystalline Cone - Middle
What is Found in the Receptor Apparatus?
- Retinula cells- Middle Line
- Rhabdom-Inner Middle Line
- Axon- Bottom
- Rhodopsin-detects light
What is Found in the Isolating Apparatus?
Primary and Secondary Pigment cells
-Focus Light on the Rhabdom
What Reflects ligh back into the ommatidia and is formed by the trachea, usually found in moths?
Dark adapted eyes have what, which results in what?
Clear Zone-between Crystalline Cone and Rhabdom
Results in Increased Sensitivity to light but Decrease Resolution
What is the Color Range?
Red to Ultraviolet
What range do most Insects See?
Yellow to Ultraviolet
What is the Number of images that can be detected per second?
Flicker Fusion Frequency
What is Used in Navigation
Plane of Polarization
What are the 3 Parts to Image Formation (Mosaic theory)
Individual ommatidia contribute to overall picture
Individual Points of Light put together in brain
Image Right-side Up
What is the Angle of light entering the ommatidium called what angle is it in insects and humans
Human = 1/90 degrees
Retinula Cells detect light and send information where?
Optic lobe of Brain
What detects and mechanical stress placed on the body and is involved in detecting position of extremities and Sensilla?
What Detects extremities?
What detects Sensilla?
Bipolar neuron that is attached to cuticle
What are the 3 basic types of Mechanosensilla, whatis there form?
Trichoid -Hair like Setae
Campaniform - Dome-Like cuticle
Chordotonal - Internal
What Monitors stress placed on cuticle
What is the organ of hearing and detects vibrations?
What are the 4 Different factors of Chordotonal?
- Positioned anywhere on the body
- Johnstons organ-Male Mosquito
- Subgenual organ-Below Knee grasshopper
- Tympanal Organ
Where are the Auditory Trachea and Trachea found in subgenual organ?
- Middle Chamber
- Outside wall
What tells the position of Joints?
What is located on either side of methorax pointing toward the rear?
What is similar to Mechanosenilla, except the dendrite does not touch the cuticle?
In Chemosensilla Receptors on the Dendrites are found where?
What are some important things about chemosensilla?
- One Pore Through top of Cuticle
- Located on mouthparts tarsi and antennae
- Requires contact with food
In Chemical Communication what is the Releaser and the Reveiever?
Source that releases chemical
Detects chemical= change in behavior
What is the release of chemicals by an organism used as a signaling agent?
What Semiochemicals are interspecific? What is Defensive Secretion and benefical secretion?
Protection from Predators
Benefits sender and Receiver
What semiochemicals are intraspecific? What is a Primer Pheromone and Releaser Pheromone?
Long term effect on reveivers behavior
Immediate effect on recievers behavior
What are he 5 types of releaser pheromones? What do they do?
Aggregation-attract both sexes
Trail-forms a trail
Territorial-marks a specific site
How to identify semiochemicals?
Identify source=exocrine gland
Identify the Chemical= purify
Bioassay- lab and field
(Moth Pheromone Gland)
What insects use Complex Chemistry, Chiral Chemistry and Blend of Chemistry?
What is the daily intervals for behavioral patterns?
What Circadian Rhythm mean active during day and active during the night? (2)
What is the behavioral term for stereotypicall movement to an external stimuli?
What is used for vibration sound communication?
Hitting the substrate Stridulation or Tymbal
What is Stridulation?
Moving cuticular suface across one another(scraper or file)
What is a Tymbal?
Thin resilient area of cuticle attached to a muscle
Contraction and relaxation casues clicking inward and outward
What is a Caste System
Drone- Male produced parthenogenetically
Worker- All female, produced by fertilized eggs
What Bee releases Primer Pheromones and Mandibular Gland delays worker foraging to build small combs?
What Bee larvae produces Brood Pheromones?
Pheromone - inhibits worker ovarian development, triggers workers to cap larval cells
Explain worker bees birth cycle
- Emerges from cell and stays in hive for 3 weeks
- 1-3 days cleaning and preparing
- 3-6 days feeding larvae older 3 days old
- 6-14 days feeding young larvae royal jelly
- 20+ days first guards and then forages
What are the two types of Bee Dances?
Waggle -if less 100m
Round - if greater than 100m
What are the levels of sociality
- Eusocial-true social insects -isoptera, Hymenoptera
What are the behavioral traits of Solitary insects?
leave egss never return
What are the Traits of Presocial? What are 2 subgroups?
Subsocial -remain with offspring after hatching
- Parasocial - aggregation of females
- 3 types-Communal -few females share nes
- Semisocial-few females lay eggs
What are the traits of Eusocial?
- Share nest
- Caste System
- Generation overlap
What are the two types of Eusocial
Primitive-Repo and workers
Advanced- Caste distinguishable on sight
What is pheromone mediated primarily by hydrocarbons?
Feeding of Young
History Of Social Insects
- Termites oldest
- Hymenoptera newer