Entomology 370

  1. What entire system of the 3 neurons sending information called?
    Neuronal Pathway or Reflex Arc
  2. What is a mass of neurons and glial cells?
  3. What is the central portion of Ganglion that contains only axons?
  4. What is the location of cell bodies in a Ganglion called?
    Peripheral Cortex
  5. What three parts make up the Central Nervous System?
    • Brain
    • Paired Ventral Nerve Cord 
    • Ventral Ganglia
  6. What is the Primitive Condition of the 3 sections in the CNS?
    1 Ganglion per segment
  7. What are the three parts of the Brain?
    • Proctocerebrum-Top Lobe
    • Deutocerebrum-Middle Lobe 
    • Tritocerebrum-Lobe Leading out
  8. What parts are found in the Protocerebrum? (3)
    • Optic Lobes 
    • Neurosecretory Cells 
    • Mushroom Body-Learning
  9. What part is found in the Deutocerebrum?
    Antennal Lobes
  10. What Does the Tritocerebrum do?
    Leads to Ventral Nerve Cord
  11. What are 3 fused ganglia that innervate and control mouthparts?
    Subesophageal Ganglion
  12. What Ganglia innervate the wing and leg muscles?
    Thoracic Ganglia 
  13. What ganglia is the smallest and innervate visceral organs?
    Abdominal Ganglia 
  14. What are the 4 parts of the Stomatogastric Nervous System?
    • Brain
    • Frontal Ganglion
    • Hypocerebral Ganglion
    • Ingluvial Ganglion 
  15. What doe the Brain, Frontal Ganglion, Hypocerebral Ganglion and Ingluvial Ganglion each control in the Stomatogastric Nervous System?
    • B-Gut Region 
    • F-Crop
    • H-Foregut
    • I-Gut Movement of Posterior Foregut and Midgut
  16. What is the Section of the Eye called?
  17. What 3 Apparatus are found in the Ommatidia?
    • Focusing 
    • Receptor
    • Isolating 
  18. What two things are found in the Focusing Apparatus 
    • Corneal Lens - Top
    • Crystalline Cone - Middle 
  19. What is Found in the Receptor Apparatus?
    • Retinula cells- Middle Line 
    • Rhabdom-Inner Middle Line 
    • Axon- Bottom
    • Rhodopsin-detects light 
  20. What is Found in the Isolating Apparatus?
    Primary and Secondary Pigment cells 

    -Focus Light on the Rhabdom
  21. What Reflects ligh back into the ommatidia and is formed by the trachea, usually found in moths?
  22. Dark adapted eyes have what, which results in what?
    Clear Zone-between Crystalline Cone and Rhabdom

    Results in Increased Sensitivity to light but Decrease Resolution
  23. What is the Color Range?
    Red to Ultraviolet
  24. What range do most Insects See?
    Yellow to Ultraviolet
  25. What is the Number of images that can be detected per second?
    Flicker Fusion Frequency
  26. What is Used in Navigation 
    Plane of Polarization
  27. What are the 3 Parts to Image Formation (Mosaic theory)
    Individual ommatidia contribute to overall picture

    Individual Points of Light put together in brain 

    Image Right-side Up
  28. What is the Angle of light entering the ommatidium called what angle is it in insects and humans 

    Insects=1 degree

    Human = 1/90 degrees
  29. Retinula Cells detect light and send information where?
    Optic lobe of Brain
  30. What detects and mechanical stress placed on the body and is involved in detecting position of extremities and Sensilla? 
  31. What Detects extremities?
  32. What detects Sensilla?
    Bipolar neuron that is attached to cuticle 
  33. What are the 3 basic types of Mechanosensilla, whatis there form?
    Trichoid -Hair like Setae

    Campaniform - Dome-Like cuticle 

    Chordotonal - Internal 
  34. What Monitors stress placed on cuticle 
    Campanifrom Sensilla 
  35. What is the organ of hearing and detects vibrations?
  36. What are the 4 Different factors of Chordotonal?
    • Positioned anywhere on the body
    • Johnstons organ-Male Mosquito
    • Subgenual organ-Below Knee grasshopper
    • Tympanal Organ
  37. Where are the Auditory Trachea and Trachea found in subgenual organ?
    • Middle Chamber 
    • Outside wall
  38. What tells the position of Joints?
  39. What is located on either side of methorax pointing toward the rear?
    Moth Tympanum
  40. What is similar to Mechanosenilla, except the dendrite does not touch the cuticle?
  41. In Chemosensilla Receptors on the Dendrites are found where?
    Bipolar Neurons 
  42. What are some important things about chemosensilla?
    • One Pore Through top of Cuticle 
    • Located on mouthparts tarsi and antennae 
    • Requires contact with food 
  43. In Chemical Communication what is the Releaser and the Reveiever?
    Source that releases chemical 

    Detects chemical= change in behavior
  44. What is the release of chemicals by an organism used as a signaling agent?
  45. What Semiochemicals are interspecific? What is Defensive Secretion and benefical secretion?

    Protection from Predators 

    Benefits sender and Receiver 
  46. What semiochemicals are intraspecific? What is a Primer Pheromone and Releaser Pheromone? 

    Long term effect on reveivers behavior

    Immediate effect on recievers behavior 
  47. What are he 5 types of releaser pheromones? What do they do?
    Sex-attract mate

    Aggregation-attract both sexes

    Alarm-signal predators

    Trail-forms a trail 

    Territorial-marks a specific site 
  48. How to identify semiochemicals?
    Identify source=exocrine gland

    Identify the Chemical= purify

    Bioassay- lab and field 

    (Moth Pheromone Gland)
  49. What insects use Complex Chemistry, Chiral Chemistry and Blend of Chemistry?

    bark beetle 

    cabbage moth
  50. What is the daily intervals for behavioral patterns?
    Circadian Rhythm
  51. What Circadian Rhythm mean active during day and active during the night? (2)

  52. What is the behavioral term for stereotypicall movement to an external stimuli?
  53. What is used for vibration sound communication?
    Hitting the substrate Stridulation or Tymbal
  54. What is Stridulation?
    Moving cuticular suface across one another(scraper or file)
  55. What is a Tymbal?
    Thin resilient area of cuticle attached to a muscle

    Contraction and relaxation casues clicking inward and outward
  56. What is a Caste System

    Drone- Male produced parthenogenetically

    Worker- All female, produced by fertilized eggs
  57. What Bee releases Primer Pheromones and Mandibular Gland delays worker foraging to build small combs?
  58. What Bee larvae produces Brood Pheromones?

    Pheromone - inhibits worker ovarian development, triggers workers to cap larval cells 
  59. Explain worker bees birth cycle 
    • Emerges from cell and stays in hive for 3 weeks
    • 1-3 days cleaning and preparing 
    • 3-6 days feeding larvae older 3 days old
    • 6-14 days feeding young larvae royal jelly 
    • 20+ days first guards and then forages 
  60. What are the two types of Bee Dances?
    Waggle -if less 100m

    Round - if greater than 100m
  61. What are the levels of sociality 
    • Solitary 
    • Presocial 
    • Eusocial-true social insects -isoptera, Hymenoptera
  62. What are the behavioral traits of Solitary insects?
    leave egss never return
  63. What are the Traits of Presocial? What are 2 subgroups?
    Subsocial -remain with offspring after hatching 

    • Parasocial - aggregation of females 
    • 3 types-Communal -few females share nes 
    •              Quasi-Social
    •              Semisocial-few females lay eggs
  64. What are the traits of Eusocial?
    • Share nest
    • Caste System 
    • Generation overlap
  65. What are the two types of Eusocial 
    Primitive-Repo and workers

    Advanced- Caste distinguishable on sight 
  66. What is pheromone mediated primarily by hydrocarbons?
    Kin Recognition 
  67. Feeding of Young 
  68. History Of Social Insects
    • Termites oldest 
    • Hymenoptera newer
Card Set
Entomology 370
Exam 3