neuro final

  1. what is the incidence of unipoalr affective disorder in industrialized western societies?
  2. What is the incidence of bipolar affective disorder?
  3. is there a sex difference in bipolar affective disorder?
  4. what percent of affective disorder sufferers attempt suicide?
  5. what is the concordance rate of twin stuudies for affective disorders?
    • 60 - identical
    • 15- fraternal
  6. what is the first antidepressant drug?
  7. 4 classes of antidepressants
    • 1) monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • 2) tricyclic antidepressants
    • 3) lithium
    • 4) monamine reuptake inhibitors
  8. iproniazid increases the levels of ___________ by inhibiting the activity of monamine oxidase
    monoamines, like serotonicn and norepinephrine
  9. ________ is an enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters in the cytoplasm
  10. what is the worst side effect of MAO inhibitors?
    cheese effect- foods containing tyramine raise blood pressure
  11. what was the first tricyclic antidepressant?
  12. what was the first SSRI?
    fluexetine, prozac
  13. fewer htp transporters in
    • 1) recent ecstacy users
    • 2) people with ocd
    • 3) people in a romantic obsessive love state
    • 4) people with PTSD
  14. statistics for people with fewer htp transporters
    • - 20% have 2 short alleles
    • -30% have mixed alleles
    • -30% have 2 long alleles
    • short alleles=less protein
  15. reserpine is a blood pressure medecine that blocks monamines to lower bp, induces _______ in 15%
  16. stress and depression linked to reduced neurogenesis in
    dentate gyrus
  17. excercise
    • 1) alleviates depression
    • 2) reinstates neurogenesis
  18. what percent of bipolar people attempt suicide
  19. success rate of lithium?
    70-80 percent on mania in 2 weeks
  20. schizophrenic hallucinations begin in the ____ and spread to the ______
    right hemisphere auditory,spread to left hemisphere auditory
  21. where does the "alien" sense in schizophrenia come from
    low prefrontal cortex activity
  22. positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reduced by these dopamine receptor agonists
    also reduced by this dopamine storage blocker
    • chlopromazine, haloperiodol
    • reserpine
  23. positive symptoms of schizophrenia are increased by these reuptake blockers
    • amphetamine/cocaine
    • L-Dopa
  24. _____ binds to postsynaptic dopamine recptors; blocks dopamine activating ability
  25. Phenothiazines:
  26. butyrophenones:
    haloperidol, spiroperiodol
  27. side effect of D2 antagonists:
    • tardive dyskinesia
    • -uncontrolled movement due to d2receptor supersensitivity
  28. an atypical neuroleptic that increases dopamine and serotonin in the PFC, and has a low affinity for d2 receptorscl
  29. problems with d2 hypothesis
    • 1) atypical neuroleptics
    • 2) take weeks to work
    • 3) d2 does not help most patients
    • 4) brain abnormalities aare more extensive than d2 receptor rich areas
  30. schizophrenics display ________ at rest and during wisconsinc ard sorting task
  31. schizophrenics display a generally decreased _____ matter, and increased size of ________
    gray, ventricles
  32. onset of schizophrenia:
    • 75%: late teens, early 20s
    • 25%:: late onset, after age 40
  33. schizophrenia is possibly linked with ______ changes
    hormona (lack of estrogen)
  34. possible cause of schizophrenia is exposure to ______ or other viruses in the second trimester, based on the seasonality effect, and increased incidence in urban areas
  35. schizophrenia could be caused by a vitamin deficiency during the ____ trimester, especially this deficiency
    first, thiamin
  36. releasing and inhibiting hormones are released from hypothalamic neurons into the
    hypothalamic pituitary portal system
  37. hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones influence the release of
    anterior pituitary hormones
  38. progesterone may increase the activity of this NT
  39. estrogen facilitates.....
    5HT, other monamines
  40. benzodiazepines are ______ agonists; they INCREASE INHIBITION.
  41. when you withdraw from benzodiazepines, you don't have enough endogenous Gaba activity, so you feel
    disconnected, not realy ladeda
  42. ______ agonists in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex prevents craving and relapse in animals
  43. wy can't we use glutamate to inhibit the reward pathway?
    • all learning triggers the reward pathway
    • increase glutamate=excitotoxicity
  44. lower resting vmPFC activity----->
    more cocaine activity
  45. 2 personality traits related to drug addiction
    • 1) reward sensitivity
    • 2) low inhibition
  46. how does lithium work?
    it blocks NMDA receptors (for glutamate)
  47. what is a possible trigger for mania in bipolar patients?
    sleep deprivation
  48. what percent of schizophrenia is chronic?
  49. what percent of schizophrenic hallucinations are auditory?
Card Set
neuro final
neuro final