Review 5

  1. How does HBV cause hepatocellular carcinoma
    • Integrates in DNA ->
    • increases insulin-like growth factor II and receptor
    • suppress p53
  2. asthma diagnosis
    • Respiratory symptoms with normal CXR
    • occasional sputum eosinophils
    • decreased FEV1
  3. Histo of extrahepatic biliray atresia
    • intrahepatic bile duct proliferation
    • portal tract edema and fibrosis
    • parenchymal cholestasis
  4. What mutation is responsible for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    mutations in cardiac sarcomere proteins (B myosin heavy chain)
  5. Consequence of cholestasis that causes osteomalacia
    decrease absorption of fat soluble vitamins
  6. Where does small cell carcinoma originate from and what does it stain
    From primitive cells of basal layer of bronchial epithelium

    • Stain neuroendocrine:
    • specific enolase
    • chromogranin
    • synaptophysin
  7. What is cerbral amyloid angiopathy
    B amyloid deposit in the vessels that makes the arteries weak and prone to rupture causing more local effects than hypertension encephalopathy
  8. How do you protect an infant from tetanus
    Immunizing the mother so that IgG antibodies go to the baby
  9. What is kinesin
     ATP dependent anterograde transporter of neurotransmitter contained vesicles
  10. What supplies the area that results in fluent aphasia
    This is Wernickes area which supplied by the MCA
  11. Treatment for AIDS patient that presents with ring enhancing lesions bilaterally in the frotnal lobe
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • TX: pyramethamine and sulfadiazine
  12. AIDS w/ EBV presents with
    primary CNS lymphoma that consists of B cells
  13. Fragile X presentation
    • Mental retardation
    • long face
    • macroorchidism
    • mitral valve prolapse
    • short stature
  14. Support in patient communication
    express concern independent of understanding
  15. E 4 of Apolipoprotein E leads to
    late familial Alzheimers
  16. How does Methylmalonyl CoA become Succinyl CoA
    via methylmalonyl CoA isomerase and vitamin B12
  17. Where do schwennomas occur
    cerebellopontine angle between cerebellum and lateral pons
  18. Contains synaptophysin
    • presynaptic vesicles of neurons, neuroendocrine and neuroectoderm cells
    • neurons only stain synaptophysin not GFAP
  19. UMN presentation
    • Spastic paralysis,
    • hyperreflexia
    • upgoing plantar reflex
  20. Syringomyelia
    • Loss of pain and temperature
    • LMN signs
    • UMN signs
  21. Polyhydramnios
    increase AFP because of impaired swallowing due to abdominal atresia and anencephaly
  22. Vitamin E deficiency
    • degeneration of spinocerebellar tracts,
    • dorsal column of spinal cord
    • peripheral nerves
  23. What is bartonella henselae responsible for
    • Bacillary angiomatosis
    • culture negative endocarditis
  24. Segmented viruses that can undergo shifts
    • orthomyxovirus
    • rotavirus
  25. Diphenhydramine
    H1 receptor antagonist with anticholinergic effects
  26. What decreases lung compliance
    • pulmonary fibrosis
    • insufficient surfactant
    • pulmonary edema
  27. EBV causes
    • Burkitt lymphoma
    • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    • CNS lymphoma in HIV
    • post transplant lymphoproliferative disease
    • mononucleosisi
  28. Histo of chronic Hep B
    finely granular and eosinophilic = gound glass
  29. WHat sensory pathway does not go through thalamus
    Olfactory tract
  30. Skin rash of Borrelia burgdorferi
    erythema chronicum migrans = red lesion with central clearing
  31. A1AT deficiency presnentation
    • Seen in patients < 50 yoa that have chronic bronchitis or emphysema
    • history of neonatal hepatitis with cholestasis
  32. Tay Sachs presentation
    • macrocephaly
    • ok until 2-6 months -> progressive weakness, hypotonia, abnormal startle response
  33. Prolong loud noise damages what
    hearing loss due to damage  og stereocilia cells of Organ of Corti
  34. Eczematous dermatitis histo
    Spongiosis - edema that can tear desmosomes apart
  35. GVHD
    graft T cells against host skin liver and GI tract
  36. Dubin Johnson dx
    • normal liver enzymes
    • conugated bilirubin > 50%
    • increased urinary coproporphyrin
  37. What causes lacunar infarcts
    Hypertensive arteriolosclerosis
  38. Primidone
    anticonvulsant that gets broken down to phenobarbital and PEMA
  39. Entacapone MOA
    inhbits peripheral methylation of l-dopa
  40. Treatment for Cryptococcus meningitis
    TX: Amphotericin B & Flucytosine

    Prevention: Fluconazole
  41. Meningococcal pili
    Used for epithelial attachment to nasopharynx
  42. Altruism
    guilty feelings alleviated through selfless service
  43. Opiate withdrawal
    • Abdominal pain
    • nausea/ vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • pilorection
    • pupillary dilation
    • fever
  44. Cerebral aqueduct
    3rd or 4th ventricle
  45. Frederich Ataxia
    • Spinocerebellar tract
    • dorsal column
    • kyphoscoliosis
    • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  46. Increased ESR and tongue pain during meals
    temporal arteritis
  47. Fragile X
    • Mental retardation
    • dysmorphic facial features
    • macroorchidism
  48. Menieres Disease
    • increase volume of endolymph->
    • tinnitus
    • vertigo
    • hearing loss
  49. Halothane toxicity
    widespread centrilobular hepatic necrosis
  50. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration origin
    Autoimmune antibody formation from cancer such as lung cancer
  51. Zellweger syndrome
    Peroxisomes are absent or deficit -> cant break down LCFA
Card Set
Review 5
Review 5