Nutriion 120 Energy

  1. What % of canadians are overweight or obese in canada today?
    • 60% overweight or obese
    • 23% obese
  2. total energy expenditure (TEE)
    The sum of the energy used for basal metabolism, activity, processing food, deposition of new tissue, and production of milk.
  3. basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    The rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions. BMR measurements are performed in a warm room in the morning before the subject rises, and at least 12 hours after the last food or activity.
  4. resting metabolic rate (RMR)
    Term used when an estimate of basal metabolism is determined by measuring energy utilization after 5-6 hours without food or exercise. RMR values are about 10%-20% higher than BMR values
  5. for every 1°C above normal body temperature what is the % increase in BMR?
  6. What effect can low energy diets have on BMR?
    Energy intake below needs may depress resting metabolic rate by 10%-20%, or the equivalent of 100-400 kcal/day
  7. nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)
    The energy expended for everything we do other than sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise.
  8. thermic effect of food (TEF) or diet induced thermogenesis
    The energy required for the digestion of food and the absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients. It is equal to approximately 10% of daily energy intake.
  9. What are the % energy costs of digesting fat protein and carbs?
    • fat: 2-3%
    • protein: 15-30%
    • carbs:6-8%
  10. How much Glycogen does the body store?
    The body generally stores only about 200-500 g of glycogen—enough to provide glucose for about 24 hours
  11. adipocytes
    Fat-storing cells. Adipocytes grow in size as they accumulate more triglycerides and shrink as triglycerides are removed from them
  12. direct calorimetry
    • -A method of determining energy use that measures the amount of heat produced.
    • -heat is generated by metabolic reactions that both convert food energy into ATP
    • -It is expensive and impractical
  13. indirect calorimetry
    • -A method of estimating energy use that compares the amount of oxygen consumed to the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled. 
    • -burning of fuels by the body in cellular respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide.
    • -equipment is too cumbersome for long-term use
  14. estimated energy requirements (EER)
    The amount of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, gender, size, and activity level.
  15. How is activity lever estimated for EER? for men and woman
    Men:     1.00 1.11 1.25 1.48

    Women:1.00 1.12 1.27 1.45
  16. Life Stage EER Prediction Equation
    • -Men ≥ 19 yrs EER = 662 - (9.53 × Age in yrs) + PA [(15.91 × Weight in kg) + (539.6 × Height in m)]
    • -Women ≥ 19 yrs EER = 354 - (6.91 × Age in yrs) + PA [(9.36 × Weight in kg) + (726 × Height in m)]
  17. What risks does obesity increase?
    • Heart disease
    • high blood cholesterol
    • high blood pressure
    • stroke
    • diabetes
    • gallbladder disease
    • sleep apnea,
    • respiratory problems
    • arthritis
    • gout
    • cancers
  18. What is body fat needed for?
    Body fat is needed for cushioning, as an insulator, and as a reserve for periods of illness/famine
  19. What are the healthy percentages of body fat for young men and woman?
    women: 21%-32%

    Men: 8%-19%
  20. bioelectric impedance analysis
    A technique for estimating body composition that measures body fat by directing a low-energy electric current through the body and calculating resistance to flow. Fat is more resistant.
  21. subcutaneous fat
    Adipose tissue that is located under the skin. More common in pear shaped bodies
  22. underwater weighing
    A technique that uses the difference between body weight underwater and body weight on land to estimate body density and calculate body composition.
  23. BMI
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  24. Visceral fat
    • -fat above waist and around internal organs.
    • -more likely to become resistant to insulin than subcutaneous fat
    • -releases more free fatty acids causing a higher incidence of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes
    • -found in people with apple body shapes
  25. What is the waist cutoff for men and woman in north america?
    Men: 102cm

    Women: 88cm
  26. Set Point Theory
    theory that when people finish growing, their weight remains relatively stable, despite periodic changes in energy intake or output (one theory of why it is so hard to lose weight)
  27. Obesity Genes
    • -the genes in the body that code for proteins that regulate how we use and store energy
    • -more than 300 genes and regions of chromosomes have been linked to weight regulation
  28. Seratonin
    -neurotransmitter in the brain, when levels are low, CHO is craved, when seratonin is high, protein is preffered 
  29. Ghrelin
    • -hormone produced by the stomach that stimulates food intake
    • -produced in pancreas and stomach
    • -is opposite of leptin 
  30. Leptin
    • -produced by adipose tissue(adipocytes) triggers hunger
    • -functions in hypthalamus of brain
    • -more fat means more leptin release
    • -fat people over time can become resistant to leptin, resulting in higher levels of leptin in blood
  31. Thrifty Metabolism
    -the theory that some people use energy very efficiently, creating excess ATP and therefore making them overweight/obese without large amounts of food consumed
  32. Adaptive Thermogenesis
    -the change in energy expenditure induced by factors such as changes in ambient temperature and food intake
  33. Genetics and Obesity
    • -indivuduals with family history of obesity are 2-3 times more likely to be obese, risks increase with magnitude of obesity
    • -75% of BMI is from genes, 25% from environment and lifestyle
  34. Obesogenic Environment
    -environment that promotes weight gain by encouraging overeating and physical inactivity 
  35. Pound of body fat
    • -one pound of body fat contains 3500kcal
    • -to lose one pound of fat in a week you need to be calorie negative by 500 kcal/day, by diet excercise or combination
  36. Calorie restricted diets
    • -less than 1200 kcal diets should be supplemented with multivitamin as it is difficult to consume balanced diet
    • -less than 800 kcal, medical supervision is recommended
  37. Behavior Modification
    • -process used to gradually and permanently change habitual behaviors
    • -antecedent is watching tv, behavior is mindlessly eating chips and consequence is feeling remorse and gaining weight
  38. Atkins
    • -very low CHO 
    • -difficult to follow long term
    • -hard on body
    • -Rozwadowski was anti atkins
  39. Gastric Banding
    • -surgical procedure where and adjustable band is placed on upper portion of the stomach to limit the volume the stomach can hold and delay emptying
    • -smaller stomach typically about 30 ml
  40. Gastric Bypass
    • -staples stomach into smaller section similar to banding, but reroutes small intestine to the new stomach, thus shrinking the stomach and shortening length of intestine
    • -can result in issues with diarrhea
Card Set
Nutriion 120 Energy
Nutriion 120 Energy