What are the annexes and appendices important to IPB?
- Annex B - Intelligence
- Appendix 1 - Intelligence Estimate
- Annex K - Civil Affairs
What is the output of COA Analysis?
- Decision Support Template
- Refined PIR, HVTs, and HPTs
- NAIs that support Decision Points
- Analysis of all enemy war fighting functions
What is the reference manual for IPB?
FM 2-01.3 (FM 2-01.301)
What are the steps of IPB (D2ED)?
- Define the operational environment.
- Describe the environmental effects on operations.
- Evaluate the threat.
- Determine threat courses of action.
What are the 4 methods to evaluate terrain's effects on COAs?
- Concentric Ring
- Avenue in Depth
What are the two sub-steps for terrain analysis?
- Analyze the military aspects of the terrain and weather (OAKOC & WATCH-VP).
- Evaluate the terrains effect on military operations (4 methods).
What are the Operational Variables (PMESII-PT)?
- Physical Environment
What are the Tactical Variables (METT-TC)?
- Terrain & Weather
- Troops Available
- Time Available
- Civil Considerations
What are the Military Aspects of Terrain (OAKOC)?
- Observation & Fields of Fire
- Avenues of Approach
- Key Terrain
- Cover & Concealment
What are the Military Aspects of Weather (WATCH-VP)?
- Atmospheric Pressure
- Cloud Cover
What are the Civil Considerations (ASCOPE)?
What is the definition of IPB?
A systematic process for analysing and visualizing portions of the Mission Variables, including threat, terrain, weather, and civil considerations, in a specific area of interest and for a specific mission. It is a continuous process that updates running estimates and supports MDMP.
What is the definition of an HPT?
A high payoff target is a target whose loss to the enemy will significantly contribute to the success of the friendly course of action.
What is the definition of an HVT?
A high value target is a target the enemy commander requires for the successful completion of his mission.
What is the purpose of IPB?
To reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, terrain, weather, and civil considerations for all types of operations.
What is parallel planning?
Parallel planning is two or more echelons planning for the same operation nearly simultaneously.
What is collaborative planning?
Collaborative planning is the real-time interaction among commanders and staffs at two or more echelons developing plans for a particular operation.
What are the seven steps of MDMP?
- Receipt of Mission
- Mission Analysis
- Course of action (COA) Development
- COA Analysis (aka Wargaming)
- COA Comparison
- COA Approval
- Orders Production
What are the significant characteristics of the operational environment?
- Geographical Terrain (Hydro, Vegetation, Soil, Elevation).
- Climate and Weather (WATCH-VP)
- Human Terrain (ASCOPE)
What are the 5 substeps for Define the Operational Environment?
- Identify Significant Characteristics of the Environment
- Identify Area of Operations
- Establish Area of Influence and Area of Interest
- Evaluate Existing Databases and Identify Intelligence Gaps
- Initiate Collection of Required Information
What does defining the Operational Environment do?
It identifies for further analysis specific features of the environment and activities within it and the physical space where they exist that may influence available courses of action (COAs) or the commander's decision cycle.
What is the definition of Area of Influence (AI)?
A geographical area in which a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander's control.
What is the definition of Area of Interest (AoI)?
That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations.
What is the definition of Named Area of Interest (NAI)?
The geographical area where information that will satisfy a specific information requirement can be collected. Named areas of interest are usually selected to capture indications of adversary courses of action, but also may be related to conditions of the battlespace.
What is the definition of Target Area of Interest (TAI)?
The geographical area where high-value targets can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces.
What is the definition of terrain analysis?
The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and man-made features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of terrain on military operations.
What are the two sub-steps in evaluating the threat?
- Create or update threat models
- Identify threat capabilities
How many threat characteristics are there? What are the two most important?
- 17: Composition, Disposition, Tactics, Training, Logistics, Operational Effectiveness, Communications, Intelligence, Recruitment, Support, Finance, Reach, National Agencies, Law Enforcement Agencies, International / Intergovernmental / Non-governmental Organizations, Personality, Other threats
- Composition: The identification of threat cells or forces and their affiliated political, religious, or ethnic organizations.
- Disposition: The geographical location of threat elements and how they are deployed, employed, or located.
What are the 3 Threat Model substeps?
- Convert threat doctrine/TTPs to graphics.
- Describe tactics and options (As a narrative).
- Identify HVTs and HPTs.
What is a Threat Template (THREATEMP)?
A threat template dictates the enemy approach to a particular tactical situation, without terrain and weather constraints
How do we identify HVTs?
- Identify HVTs from existing intelligence.
- Review the threat's objective (Purpose, Key Tasks, Endstate).
- Identify key assets to the primary operation or sequels.
- Determine how the threat might react to the loss of each identified HVT.
What are threat capabilities?
COAs and supporting operations the threat can take to influence accomplishing friendly missions.
What are the 5 sub steps of Determining Threat COAs?
- Identify the threats likely objectives and end-state.
- Identify the full set of COAs available to the threat.
- Evaluate and prioritize COAs.
- Develop each COA (Detail and Time requirements).
- Identify initial intel requirements (Surveillance/Recon).
How are likely threat objectives determined in Major Combat Operations and Asynchronous Warfare?
In a non-linear fight, start at the lowest (tactical) level and work up. In a linear fight, start at the highest (strategic or operational) and work down.
How do we identify the threats likely objectives and end state?
Through commander's guidance and METT-TC.
What are the COA screening criteria (FASDC)?
- Feasible: The unit must be able to accomplish the mission within the available time, space, and resources.
- Acceptable: The tactical or operational advantage gained by executing the COA must justify the cost in resources, especially casualties.
- Suitable: A COA must accomplish the mission and comply with the commander's planning guidance.
- Distinguishable: Each COA must differ significantly from the others.
- Complete: A COA must show how the decisive, shaping and sustaining operations accomplish the mission.
How are enemy COAs prioritized?
- Analyze each COA to identify threat strengths, weaknesses, decision points (DPs), and potential centers of gravity.
- Evaluate how well each COA meets the screening criteria.
- Evaluate how well each COA takes advantage of the operational environment.
- Analyze the threat's recent activity to determine if there are indications that one COA has already been adopted.
What is the consideration for Threat COA Development?
Develop each COA in as much detail as the situation requires given the time available.
What should each Threat COA include?
- Situation Template (SITEMP).
- HVTs specific to that COA.
What is a Situation Template (SITEMP)?
A depiction of assumed adversary dispositions, based on adversary doctrine and the effects of the battlespace if the adversary should adopt a particular course of action.
What is an Event Template (EVENTEMP)?
A model against which threat activity can be rocorded and compared. It represents a sequential projection of events that relate to space and time on the battlefield and indicates the enemy's ability to adopt a particular course of action. Depicts the NAIs where activity or lack therof will indicate which threat COA the threat has adopted, the combination of the NAI, indicators, and Time Phased Lines (TPLs) associated with each threat COA forms the basis of the event template.
What is a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR)?
An information requirement identified by the commander as being critical to facilitating timely decision making. It includes two key elements; Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR) and Friendly Force Information Requirements (FFIR).
What is a Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR)?
An intelligence requirement, stated by the commander as a priority for intelligence support, which the commander needs to support decision making and to understand the area of interest or the threat.
What is a Friendly Force Information Requirements (FFIR)?
Information the commander and staff need about the forces available for the operation. This includes personnel, maintenance, supply, ammunition, and petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) status, and experience and leadership capabilities.
What are Essential Elements of Friendly Information (EEFIs)?
They identify those elements of friendly force information that, if compromised, would jeopardize mission success. They have the same importance as CCIRs and must be approved by the commander.
What is an Intelligence Requirement (IR)?
A type of information requirement developed by subordinate commanders and the staff (including subordinate staffs) that requires dedicated SR collection for the elements of threat, terrain and weather, and civil considerations.
What is a Specific Information Requirement (SIR)?
It facilitates tasking by matching requirements to assets.
What is Latest Time Information of Value (LTIOV)?
The time by which information must be delivered to the requestor in order to provide decision makers with timely intelligence.
What tools do we utilize to graphically depict enemy COAs?
What is a MCOO?
A Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay. It is a joint intelligence preparation of the battlespace product used to portray the effects of each battlespace dimension on military operations.
What is "a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the
employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander"?
The Operational Environment (OE)
What is the "synergistic combination of all the critical variables and actors that create the conditions, circumstances, and influences that can affect military operations today and in the near- and mid-term"?
The Contemporary Operating Environment (COE)
What is "a perspective on future trends, shocks, contexts, and implications for future joint force commanders and other leaders and professionals in the national security field"?
The Joint Operational Environment (JOE)
When is IPB performed?
Continuously, but it begins during step 2 of MDMP.
What is the difference between Operational and Mission variables?
- OV's facilitate the understanding of the OE and are directly related to operational and strategic planning.
- MV's are those aspects of the OE that directly effect a mission.
What is the focus when describing the environmental effects on operations?
How the environment will effect both threat and friendly operations.
What is the primary focus when describing the environmental effects on operations?
- Civil considerations
What are the substeps to create threat models?
- Convert threat doctrine or patterns of operation to graphics.
- Describe the threat’s tactics and options.
- Identify high-value targets (HVTs) and high-payoff targets (HPTs).
What is the difference between an HVT and a COG?
- HVTs are critical to the success of the enemy commander’s mission.
- A COG is the source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom of action, and will to act and is always linked to the objective.