1. what are granulocytes?
    • visible cytoplasmic graules that stain with Wright's stain
    • lobed nulei
    • all phagocytic to some degree
    • neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
  2. what are agranulocytes?
    • lack visible cytoplasmic granules
    • have spherical or kidney shaped nuclei
    • lymphocytes, monocytes
    • lymphocytes repond to specific individual pathogens
  3. what are two categories of leukocytes?
    agranulocytes and granulocytes
  4. decreasing abundance in blood of granulocytes and agranulocytes
    never let monkeys eat bananas
  5. Describe neutophil
    • pale red nd blue
    • dense, contorted multilobular nucleus
    • first WBC to arrive at injry
    • granules contain hydrolytic enzymes
    • phagocytic, attacking and digesting bacteria
    • numbers increase during acute bacterial infections
  6. eosinophil
    • red cytoplasmic granules
    • two obed nucleus
    • phagocytic, also exocytotic
    • allergies and asthma
    • modulates immune response
  7. basophil
    • purplish black
    • rarest WBC
    • smaller than neutophils and eosinophil
    • contain histamine (acts as vasodilator to attract WBC to inflamed sites)
  8. monocytes
    • largest WBC with large, kidney bean shpaed nucleus
    • pale blue
    • migrate into tissues and become macrophages
    • aggressive phagocytes-crucial against viruses, parasites and infections
    • activate lymphocytes to mount an immune response
  9. lymphocyte
    • slightly larger than RBC; nucleus taking up most of cell
    • large numbers are migrating in and out of tissues and lymphoid tissue
    • few circulates in blood
    • some attack foreign cells, others secrete antibodies into circulation
    • two types: T cells and B cells
  10. what are the phases to halt bleeding and prevent blood loss?
    vascular, platelet, and coagulation
  11. vascular phase
    • vascular spasm: vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessel (blood vessels contain smooth muscle lined with endothlium) 
    • endothelial cells beocme sticky
  12. what is vascular phase triggered by?
    • direct injury to vascular smooth muscle
    • chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets
    • pain reflexes
  13. the platelet phase
    • platelets attach to sticky endothelium and exposed collagen fibers
    • platelets release chemical messngers
    • more platelets arrive and stick to each other forming a platelet plug (pos. feedback)
  14. coagulation phase
    • fibrinogen converts to fibrin
    • fibrin mesh grows, trapping cells and more platelets forming a blood clot
  15. what does the extrinsic and intrinsic paths begin with in the clotting factors
    extrinsic path begins with damaged tissue releasing tissue factor; intrinsic path begins with activation of proenzymes exposed to collagen fibers
  16. how does blood clotting begin?
    • when either extrinsic or intrinsic pathways activate Factor X
    • forms enzyme prothrombinase, which converts prothrombin into thrombin
    • thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin and stimulates tissue factor and platelet facts
    • positive feedback loop prevents blood loss
  17. what is factor XIII
    thrombin with Ca activates this fibrin stabilizing factor which cross links fibrin and strengthens/stabilizes clot
  18. what is the importnace of clot retraction?
    • after fibrin traps platelets and RBC, platelets contract to pull tissue close together (actin and myosin contract)
    • contraction pulls on fibrin strands and squeezes serum from clot and draws ruptured blood vessel edges
  19. platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)
    stimulates division of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to rebuild blood vessel wall
  20. vascular enothelial growth factor (VEGF)
    stimulates endothelial cells to multiply and restore endothelial lining
  21. what are the coverings of the heart
    • surrounded by pericardial cavity (air space); lined by serous membrane, the pericardium
    • -visceral pericardium or epicardium covers the heart (inner wall)
    • -parietal pericardium (outer wall) lines inner surface of pericardial sac
    • perdiadial fluid found between layers, reduces friction
  22. what are the three layers of the heart wall?
    • epicardium outer surface
    • myocardium: prodces twisting and squeezing during contraction
    • endocardium: covers inside chambers and heart valves
  23. cardiac muscle contraction
    • depolarization: due to Na influx through fast channels. pos feedback opens many Na channels, reversing the membrane potential. channel inactivation ends this phase
    • plateau phase: due to Ca influx through slow Ca channels, keeps the cell depolarized due to few K channels open
    • repolarization: Ca channels inactivating and K channels opening. This allow K efflux
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