HAPS 3.txt

  1. What are the 3 types of muscles?
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
    • Skeletal
  2. What 2 types of muscles are striated
    • Cardiac
    • Skeletal
  3. What 2 types of muscles have involuntary movement ?
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  4. Which muscle type is located in the heart?
  5. Which type of muscle is located in the hollow organs?
  6. Which type of muscle is connected to the skeleton?
  7. Which type of muscle is steady, increases during stress, and is fatigue resistant
  8. What type of muscle is slow, steady or sustained, and fatigue resistant?
  9. What type of muscle is powerful, rapid, and fatigues easily?
  10. Which types of muscle only has 1 nuclei per cell
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  11. What is the energy source of all the muscle types
    • Aerobic
    • Skeletal also has anerobic
  12. What 2 cells make up cardiac muscle?
    Cardiocytes and cardiac myocytes
  13. What type of specialized cells establish a regular rate of contraction?
    Pacemaker cells
  14. What happens at the intercalated disks of cardiac muscles?
    Cell membranes of Cardiocytes are extensively intertwined
  15. how do the connected Cardiocytes at the intercalated discs help the cells?
    Stabilizes the relative positions of adjacent cells and maintain 3d structure of the tissue/heart
  16. How are direct electrical connections between 2 Cardiocytes possible?
    Cells are intertwined and located at the intercalated discs
  17. What type of cell is tapered at its ends while relaxed?
  18. What type of organs are smooth muscle cells mainly associated wwith
    Hollow organs
  19. What two types of cells have low regeneration abilities?
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiocytes-cardiac
  20. Why are skeletal cells multinucleated?
    Amount of length of the proteins needed for contraction to occur
  21. What type of muscles produce movements of tthe body?
  22. How are muscles connected to each other?
  23. What is the muscle attachment to the bone that remains fixed or stationary when an articulation is used?
  24. What is the muscle attachment to the bone that moves when an articulation is used
  25. What is the middle, largest portion of muscle bundle called?
  26. What is the formation of bundles or wires on skeletal muscles called?
  27. What type of fascicle run along the longitudinal axis of the muscle?
  28. What type of fascicle are short and attached obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle?
  29. What type of fascicles are strap like sartorius of the thigh and fusiform of tthe biceps brachii examples of?
  30. What type of fascicles are the unipennate, bipennates, and the multipennate examples ofz?
  31. What are examples of unipennate muscle cell arrangements?
    • Extensor digitorum
    • Antebrachium
  32. What are examples of the bipennates muscle cell arrangement?
  33. What are examples of multipennate muscle cell arrangement?
    Deltoid muscle of acromium region
  34. What type of muscles cells perform flexability?
  35. What type of fascicles have a broad origin and converge toward a single tendon?
  36. What type of fassicles/muscles are usually triangular?
  37. What is an example of a convergent muscle?
    Pectoralis major
  38. What type of muscle are found surrounding openings which they close by contracting and open by relaxing?
  39. What are examples of circular muscles?
    • Orbicularis oculi
    • Orbicularis oris
    • Pyloric sphincter
  40. What's another name for circular muscles
  41. What does the pattern of fascicle arrangement determine?
    • Range of motion
    • Power/strength
  42. How much do skeletal muscle cell fibers shorten when they are contracted?
    70% of their relaxed length
  43. What does muscle power/strength depend on?
    Total number of muscle cells- more cells, more strength
  44. What are the 4 layers of connective ttissue of a muscle?
    • Fascia
    • Epimysium
    • Perimysium
    • Endomysium
  45. What connective tissue layer surrounds the entire muscle and seperates it from surrounding tissues and organs?
  46. What connective tissue divides the skeletal muscle into a series of compartments, each containing fascicles?
  47. What does the Perimysium contain that helps control the nervous system?
    • Blood vessles
    • Nerves that contain blood flow and innervate fascicles
  48. What does muscle contraction require?
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Nutrients
  49. How do molecules enter and exit the muscles?
    Blood vessels
  50. What type of connective tissue surrounds and connects individual muscle fibers?
  51. What type of cells are scattered between Endomysium and muscle fibers called?
    Satellite cells
  52. What type of cells function in repair of damaged muscle tissue?
  53. What type of connective tissue allows muscles to slide agaisnt one another?
  54. What do the Epimysium, Perimysium, and Endomysium combine to form?
    Tendon/ aponeurosis
  55. What connects skeletal muscle to skeletal muscle?
  56. What lies in muscle cells that run the length of the cell?
  57. What are bundles of myofilaments called?
  58. What are myofilaments made up of?
    Protein filaments of actin aand myosin
  59. What are thin filaments called?
  60. What are thick filaments called?
  61. What are smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber?
  62. Whats responsible for muscle contraction?
    Interactions between thick and thin filaments
  63. What do Sacromeres contain?
    • Myosin
    • Actin
    • Proteins that stabilize the positions of thick and tthin filaments
    • Proteins that regulate contraction/movement of filaments
  64. What causes the banded/striped appearance of a sacromere?
    Differences in size, density, and distribution of thick and thin filaments
  65. What are the dark areas that contain myosin and portions of Actin called?
    A bands
  66. What are the light areas that contain only Actin called
    I bands
  67. What is the lenght of the A band?
    Equal to the length of a thick filament
  68. What are the 3 parts of an A band?
    • M line
    • H zone
    • Zone of overlap
  69. What part of the a band is that site at the middle of each thick filament where proteins connect thick filaments to each other to stabilize their positions?
    M line
  70. What part of the a hand is only contains thick filaments and only appears when the muscle is relaxed?
    H zone
  71. What part of the a band is where thick and thin filaments overlap?
    Zone of overlap
  72. What part of the Sacromeres extends from the a band of one Sacromeres to the a band of the next Sacromere?
    I band
  73. What part of the Sacromeres marks the boundary lines between Sacromeres?
    Z lines
  74. What do z lines consist of that interconnect thin filaments of adjacent Sacromeres?
  75. Where does communication between the nervous system and skeletal muscle fibers occur?
    Neuromuscular junctions
  76. What type of neuron sends messages from the brain to individual muscles or glands?
    Motor neurons
  77. What is another name for neuromuscular junctions?
    Motor units
  78. What is the motor neuron and the muscle cell it innervates called?
    Motor unit
  79. What is the minimal level of stimulation needed to contract a Myofibril called?
    Threshold stimulus
  80. What happens once a Myofibril is stimulated?
    Myofibril contracts all the way-all or none affect
  81. What are the 3 types of muscle contraction?
    • Tetanus
    • Isotonic
    • Isometric
  82. What type of muscle contraction is sustained and steady caused by a series of motor stimuil bombarding a muscle in rapid succession?
  83. What type of muscle contraction produce movement across an articulation as muscle tension increases?
  84. What type of muscular contraction does not produce movement across an articulation as muscle tension increases?
  85. When is a skeletal muscle said to be fatigued?
    When it can no longer contract despite continued neural stimulation
  86. What can muscle fatigue result on?
    Gradual reduction of strength aand flexibility of skeletal muscle
  87. What is skeletal muscle recovery dependent on?
    ATP, CP, glycogen and removal of metabolic waste
  88. What is the amount of oxygen needed to restore muscle homeostasis called?
    Oxygen debt
  89. What major tissues are involved wwith oxygen debt?
    Skeletal muscles and liver cells- generate ATP needed to convert excess lactic Acosta to glucose
  90. What are the 5 functions of the skeletal muscles?
    • Movement
    • Joint stability and posture
    • Support ans protects soft tissue
    • Regulates entrances and exits
    • Regulates body temp
  91. what function of the skeletal muscles moves the body by stretching muscles across the bones like levers?
  92. What are the 3 parts of the movements of the skeletal muscles
    • Agonist
    • Antagonist
    • Synergist
    • Fixator
  93. Which part of the movement function is mainly responsible for making a particular movement?
  94. What part of the movement function are prime movers who's actions oppose that of the Agonist under contraction?
  95. What part of the movement function aids the prime mover in making a particular movement?
  96. What part of the movement function stabilizes the more proximal joints during weight bearing functions.of the distal joints?
  97. What function of the skeletal muscles cross over articulations aiding ligaments and holds body parts in positions that favor best and least restrictive function?
    Joint stability/ posture
  98. What skeletal muscle function protects visceral organs and supports their weight?
    Support and protects soft tissue
  99. What skeletal muscle function has smooth and skeletal muscles work to control the movement of materials into and out of the body?
    Regulate entrances and exits
  100. What skeletal muscle function has heat as a by product of friction taking place during muscular contraction during exercise and shivering?
    Regulate body temp
  101. What is muscle performance meausred by?
    • Power/ strength
    • Endurance
  102. what type of disorder is the inflammation of the sheath surrounding the flexor tendons of the palm?
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
  103. What type of disorder is when ischemia resulting from accumulated blood and fluid trapped within a musculoskeletal campartment?
    Compartment syndrome
  104. What disorder results from a serve strain or crushing injury?
    Compartment syndrome
  105. What is a condition involving an organ or body part that produces through an abnormal opening?
  106. What are the 3 types of hernias?
    • Hiatal/diaphragmatic
    • inguinal
    • Umbilical
  107. What type of hernia occurs whe abdominal organs slide into the thoracic cavity
  108. what type of hernia occurs when inguinal canal enlarges and abdominal contents are forced into it
  109. what type of hernia occurs at the umbilicus which may lead to intestines leaving the abdominal cavity to newborns
  110. what type of disorder is found in strong insecticides where organophosphates interfere with AchE ability to breakdown Ach
    organophosphate poisioning
  111. what type of disorder leads to long, sustained skeletal muscle contractions that do not relax
    organophosphate posioning
  112. what type of disorder is a condition in which occurs within a few hours of  death
    rigor mortis
  113. what disorder occurs because ATP is depleted, the cross bridges between actin and myosin cannot detach?
    rigor mortis
  114. how long does rigor mortis last
    15-25 hours
  115. what is another name for rigor mortis
    stiffness of death
  116. what type of disorder is prolonged, involuntary, painful muscular contractions?
    muscle cramps
  117. what are the causes of muscle cramps
    • hormonal imbalance-menstrual cramps
    • strenous exercise
  118. what type of disorder is caused by a bacterially contaminated  food
  119. What type of disorder releases a toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine needed for contraction
  120. what can botulism result in
    paralysis or death
  121. what type of disorder is an autoimmune disease in which acetylcholine receptors are destroyed resulting in a progressive paralysis
    myasthenia gravis
  122. what type of disorder is caused by a common bacteria and only affects tissues that are low in oxygen
  123. what is the incubation period of tetanus
    less than 2 weeks
  124. what are the symptoms of tetanus
    • headache
    • muscle stiffness
    • difficulty swallowing
    • lockjaw
  125. what is the mortality rate of tetanus
    40-60 percent
  126. what tye of disorder is a disease resulting from a viral destruction of motor neurons and characterized by paralysis and atrophy of motor units
  127. what type of disorder is an abnormality in the genes that code for structural and funcitonal proteins in muscle fibers
    muscular dystrophies
  128. what are the symptoms of muscular dystrophie
    • progressive skeletal muscle weakness
    • deterioration
    • shallow breathing- resulting in pneumonia
  129. what is a detailed examination of a body after death, usually performed by a pathologist called
  130. What 3 stages are autopsies performed in
    • superficial exam
    • internal exam
    • tissue
  131. what stage of an autopsy observes bites, cuts, needle punctures, scars, burns, bruising, and edema
  132. what stage of an autopsy requires a y-incision on the anterior torso to exam internal organs for tumors clots and englargements
    internal exam
  133. what stage of an autopsy is a microscopic viewing for cancer, infection, and blood cell counts, and fluid examination
  134. Why do doctors perform autopsy
    • determine cause of death
    • confirm the accuracy of diagnostics tests
    • to assess the effectiveness of surgeries or other medical treatments
    • did the patient die of a inherited disease
    • was the death preventable
    • detect previously undected problems
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HAPS 3.txt