1. what are the three layers of vessel walls?
    • tunica intima: endothelial lining and elastic connective tissue
    • tunica media: smooth muscle with collagen and elastic fibers
    • tunica externa: sheath of connective tissue that protects vessel, anchor to other tissues
  2. what are the three types of arteries?
    • elastic: first arteries leaving the heart (pulmonary trunk, aorta)
    • muscular arteries: external carotid arteries (deliver blood to head and neck) deliver blood to body organs, active in vascoconstriction
    • arterioles: smallest; leads to capillary beds, control flow by vasodilation and vasoconstriction
  3. what are the functions of capillaries?
    exchange of gases, nutrients, wastes, hormones between blood and interstitual fluid
  4. why are capillaries ideal for diffusion between plasma and IF?
    • thin walls provide short diffusion distance
    • small diameter slows flow to increase diffusion rate
    • enormous number of capillaries provide huge surface area for increased diffusion
  5. what are the three types of capillaries?
    • continuous
    • fenestrated
    • sinusoid
  6. what are continuous capillaries?
    • least permable, most common
    • tight junctions connect endothelial cells
    • intercellular clefts allowpassage of fluids and small solutes
  7. fenestrated capillaries?
    • large fenestrations (pores) increase permeability
    • occurs in areas of active absorption or filtration
  8. sinusoid capillaries?
    • fewer tight junctions; usually fenestrated; larger intercellular clefts; large lumens
    • blood flow sluggish: allow modification
  9. what is precapillary sphincter?
    a band of smooth muscle that regulates entrance to capillary beds
  10. what is a vascular shunt?
    connects the terminal arteriole with teh postcapillary venule in a capillary bed
  11. what are capillary beds regulated by?
    local chemical conditions and vasomotor nerves
  12. where do true capillaries branch from and return to?
    metarteriole, thoroughfare channel (pathway is called a vascular shunt)
  13. what are alternate routes for blood flow?
    • formed by anastromaosis, a joining of blood vessels
    • arteriovenous anastomosis: bypasses capillary bed, connective arteriole to venule
    • arterial anastomosis: occurs where arteries fuse before branching into arterioles (ensure delivery of blood to key areas)
  14. what are the three types of veins?
    • venules: smallest, some lack tunica media; very porous, allow fluids and WBC into tissues
    • medium sized venules: tunica media has several smooth muscle layers
    • large veins: thin tunica media and thick collagenous tunica externa; thinner walls than arteries b/c of low pressure; contain up to 65% of blood supply (called capacitance vessels aka blood reservoirs)
  15. what adaptations ensure return of blood to heart despite low pressure?
    • large diameter lumens offer little resistance
    • venous valves present backflow of blood
    • venous sinuses: flattened veins with extrememly thin walls
  16. how to maintain adequate blood flow?
    • normally, blood flow equals cardiac output (CO); increased CO leads to increased flow through capillaries
    • decreased CO leads to reduced flow
    • capillary flow influenced by pressure and resistance
    • liquids exert hydrostatic presure in all directions
    • circulatory pressure, high in aorta vs. low in venae cavae
    • blood pressure
  17. what is blood pressure
    force per unite area exerted on wall of blood vessel by blood
  18. what is peripheral resistance?
    • any fore that opposes flow/movemnt of blood
    • measure amount of friction blood encournters with vessel walls, generally in peripheral (systemic) circulation 
    • highest pressure gradient exists in arterioles due to high peripheral resistance
  19. what are three important sources of resistance?
    • vascular resistance: largest component
    • viscosity: due ot interactions between moles in liquid
    • turbulence: eddies and swirts in flow of blood 
  20. what is vascular resistance?
    • caused by friction between blood and vessel walls
    • amount of friction due to length and diameter of vessel. 
    • arteriolar diameter is primary source of vascular resistance
    • the smaller the diameter, the greater the distance
    • varies inversely with fourth power of vessel radius 
    • abrupt changes in diameter or fatty plagues from atheroclerosis increase resistance. 
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