Unit One Review (History)

  1. “Coureurs de Bois”
    French fur trade. Roamers of the woods.
  2. “Holy Experiment”
  3. 1st People in Americas
    Asians crossed Beringia. 1490s hundreds of tribes, 50-75 million people. Hunters and gatherers. Came for food.
  4. Act of Religious Toleration
    (1649) First colonial law giving religious freedom to Christians. Died if you denied divinity of Jesus. Excluded non-Christian faith.
  5. Amerigo Vespucci
    Italian sailor. The New World was named after him.
  6. Anglican Church
    (Church of England) Founded by Henry VII to allow divorce. Protestants. Ruled by monarch instead of Pope.
  7. Anne Hutchinson
    Antinomianism. Banished in 1637 with followers. Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
  8. Antinomianism
    God communicates directly, why follow religious leaders if we’re predestined.
  9. Aztecs (Mexico) 1428-1521
    • Used Chinampas “Raised bed gardens” Conquered by Hernan Cortes
  10. Bartholomeu Dias (1488)
    Sailed around the coast of southern Africa.
  11. Beringia (40,000 years ago)
    Land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska
  12. Bicameral Legislature
    Two house government. (Representative for common people, rich people)
  13. Black Legend
    Legend of Spanish being horrible people. TRUTH: built actual empires, tried to help Natives, allowed Natives to intermarry.
  14. Blue Laws
    Prohibited “ungodly activity”, stage plays, playing cards, dice games, and excessive hilarity.
  15. Calvinism
    Believed in predestination, the conversion experience, and that God chooses visible saints “the elect”
  16. Captain John Smith (1608)
    Leader, Got settlers to farm in Jamestown.
  17. Carolinas
    Royal colony. Plantations. NORTH: Small farms (tobacco, tar, turpentine), few slaves, difficult to travel. SOUTH: Large plantations (rice, indigo), waterways for easy transportation (Charleston seaport)
  18. Charties of Liberties and Privileges (NY) (1683)
    Elected assembly, freedom of worship, trial by jury.
  19. Chesapeake Colonies
    Maryland and Virginia. Diseases. Few women with young gentlemen. CHANGES: Most populated, immunities.
  20. Christopher Columbus
    (1492) Italian. Sailed for Spain to find route to India, but discovered America. Canary Islands -> Bahamas Brought permanent interaction between Europeans and Native Americans
  21. Columbian Exchange
    The exchange of goods between Native Americans and Europeans. NATIVES: Beans, corn, sweet/white potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, syphilis. EUROPEANS: Sugar canes, blue grasses, pigs, horses, the wheel, iron, guns. Measles, small pox
  22. Connecticut
    Puritan,  Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Charter in 1662.
  23. Conversion Experience
    God revealing when you are going to heaven or hell.
  24. Creole (Spanish)
    European decent, born in colonies.
  25. Crusdaes
    Europeans going to other regions to spread Christianity. Opened their eyes to new things and got them thinking.
  26. Delaware (New Sweden)
    Swedish Lutherans.  Fought with Peter Stuyvesant. Given to William Penn for access to Atlantic Ocean.
  27. Duke of York (James II)
    Got New York from the king in 1664 and became governor. Ordered new tax without representation.
  28. Dutch East India Company (1602)
    Finance, shipping, trade unequaled. Southeast Asia. Richest!
  29. Dutch West India Company (1621)
    Finance, shipping, trade unequaled. African slave trade contributed to Dutch colonization in Americas.
  30. Edict of Nantes (1598)
    Gave rights to huguenots.
  31. Elizabeth I
    Queen. Protestants vs. Catholics. Protestants won! Created problems with Spain and France because they’re Catholic.
  32. Encomienda
    Spain king gave land/Natives to settlers. They had to take care of them, teach them Spanish, and Catholicism.
  33. Father Marquette
    French. Missionary. Explored Great Lakes and Northern Mississippi River.
  34. Ferdinand Magellan
    Circumnavigated the world.
  35. Francisco Coronado
    (1540-1542) Southwest America.
  36. Fransico Pizarro (1532)
    Conquered Incas
  37. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
    First written constitution. Elected legislature, choosing governor, term limits, fair taxation. Model for later state constitutions.
  38. George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
    Founder of Maryland
  39. Georgia (1733)
    Democratic, independent minded, not very aristocratic. Refuge for debt prisoners. Buffer between South Carolina and Florida. Became royal colony in 1752.  Plantations and slavery.
  40. Giovanni Verrazano (1524)
    French. Sent to find “northwest passage” –a body of water going through America to Asia (Did not exist)
  41. Great Law of Pennsylvania
    Appointed governor, elected legislature, religious freedom, fair trials, human punishments, education.
  42. Great Puritan Migration (1630s)
    20,000 more settlers fleeing persecution.
  43. Haciendas
    Large Spanish estates with crops and herds.
  44. Headright System
    Attacked immigrants by giving 50 acres of land to those paying for their own transportation and plantation owners paying for others.
  45. Henry Hudson
    English. Claimed New York for the Dutch.
  46. Henry VII
    Wanted to divorce his wife because she wouldn’t produce a son. Pope wouldn’t allow it and he founded the Anglican church (Church of England).
  47. Hernan Cortes (1521)
    Conquered Aztecs by befriending their enemies.
  48. Hernando de Soto (1539-1542)
    Explored Florida and Missippi.
  49. House of Burgesses (1619)
    Consisted of governor, his council, and 2 representatives from each Virginia county.
  50. Huguenots
    French Catholics converted to Calvinists. Fled to Cuba.
  51. Incas (Peru) 1400s-1500s
    Road builders. Conquered by Francisco Pizarro.
  52. Indentured Servants
    People worked for a certain amount of years for landowners to receive a home.
  53. Jacques Cartier (1534-1543)
    French. Claimed Canada. St. Lawrence Valley.
  54. James Oglethorpe
    Founded Savannah in 1733 and became acting governor.
  55. Jamestown (1607)
    Men with military background and gentlemen worked for joint-stock company. Harsh conditions (Swampy, limited supplies, starving times) Had problems with Native Americans. John Smith and John Rolfe.
  56. Jesuits
    “Black Robes” Catholic missionaries. Made of geographers and explorers.
  57. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) 1497-1498
    Sailed for England on northeast coast.
  58. John Rolfe
    Introduced tobacco.
  59. John Winthrop
    Governor of Massachusetts
  60. Juan Ponce de Leon (1513)
    Discovered Florida
  61. Leif Erickson (1000)
    Leader of Vikings (Greenland/Iceland) They went places, took over, and returned home.
  62. Louis XIV
    King of France
  63. Maize
    "Corn" Staple crop
  64. Marco Polo
    Sailed to China and wrote about his experience in a book.
  65. Martin Luther (1517)
    Wrote 95 theses to criticize the Catholic Church and their indulgences. He was protected by Germany.
  66. Maryland (1634)
    Founded by Lord Baltimore. Safe haven for Catholics. Tobacco based. “Act of Toleration”
  67. Mason Dixon Line
    Borders of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. Border dispute. Symbolically used as a boundary between free states and slave states.
  68. Massachusetts bay Colony (1630)
    Boston-“City Upon a Hill” Larger than Plymouth. More families/tradesman. “Great Migration” Economics- fur, fishing, ship building
  69. Mayas
    Yucatan Peninsula 300-900
  70. Mayflower Compact
    Agreement for self-government. Majority rules. Lead to town meetings.
  71. Mestizo (Spanish)
    1 parent European, 1 parent Native American
  72. Middle Colonies
    “Bread Basket Colonies” New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania New Jersey. Super diverse. Grew wheat and corn. Moderate size farms.  ECONOMY: grain crops, fur, iron, timber. EDUCATION: Public schools in Pennsylvania, church supported schools.
  73. Middle passage
    Journey between Africa and the New World in the Triangular trade. 20% death rate of Africans.
  74. Mulatto (Spanish)
    1 parent European, 1 parent African
  75. New England Colonies
    Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. FARMS: Small, subsistence, diversity of crops. ECONOMY: Furs, fishing, timber, ship building, distilling molasses. EDUCATION: Public schools, Harvard- (1636) Trained ministers, all towns in Massachusetts had to have a writing class (1642)
  76. New Hampshire
    Run by John Mason for trading/ fishing. Separated from Massachusetts by King Charles II
  77. New Jersey
    New Netherlands. Duke of York. George Carteret and Lord John Berkley. Bought by Quakers in 1664.
  78. Non-Separatist Puritans
    Wanted to “purify” the English Church.
  79. Patroonships
    Dutch/English. Hudson Valley estates. Bring 50 tenants and you get one.
  80. Peninsular (Spanish)
    Born in Europe.
  81. Pennsylvania
    William Penn. Quaker haven. “Holy Experiment” Philadelphia: “City of Brotherly Love” Friends with Natives. Large and diverse. Great Law of Pennsylvania. Blue Laws.
  82. Peter Stuyvesant
    Harsh governor of New York (replaced by James I) Gave New York to the Duke of York.
  83. Phillip II
    Metacom. Native American. Chief of Wampanoags. United tribes against settlers. “King Phillip’s War” Sent the armada.
  84. Pierre Minuit
    Bought Manhattan from Natives for a box of trinkets ($24)
  85. Pilgrims
    Separatists.  “Squatters” Went to Holland for religious freedom (1608) Didn’t like it, sailed for Virginia, landed in Plymouth. 102 people, half died from harsh winter. Succeeded from fur trade, fishing, and lumber.
  86. Plantation
    Large farms with slaves/indentured servants. Mostly in southern colonies.
  87. Plymouth
    Town where the Pilgrims settled.
  88. Pocahantas
    Wife of John Rolfe. Helped with tobacco expansion.
  89. Portuguese
    Sailed arounf Africa to China so they didn't have to pay middle easterners to go through the silk road.
  90. Power of the Purse
    Power to tax and spend public money
  91. Powatans
    Native Americans. Became extinct in 1685. Powatan Wars (1614, 1644) Natives were banished after defeated by English.
  92. Predestination
    Your destiny was chosen by God and there’s nothing you can do to change it.
  93. Prince Henry
    Use power to search for riches and spread Catholicism.
  94. Protestant Reformation
    Germany, England, France, Holland revolted against the Pope's power in Rome.
  95. Quakers
    Society of friends. Non-violence. There’s a little God in everyone. Jailed b.c of challenge to authority.
  96. Restoration Colonies
    The Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Georgia.
  97. Rhode Island
    Roger Williams. Anne Hutchinson. Religious/political tolerance. Safe haven for unorthodox faiths. Squatters until they got their land.
  98. Roanoke (The Lost City)
    Disappeared mysteriously. Supply ships were delayed by Spanish Armada and the people must have died off. “Croatian”- word found carved in a tree. Virginia Dare was the first child born in America.
  99. Robert La Selle
    "Sun King" Founded Louisianna.
  100. Roger Williams
    Freedom of religion, separation of church and state. Equal basis with Natives.
  101. Samuel Champlain (1608)
    French. Founded Quebec. “Father of France” Got people settled down. Became enemy of Iroquois.
  102. Sea Dogs
    English “pirates” sponsored by government. Attacked Spanish ships.
  103. Separatists
    Wanted completely different church independent of royal control. Left England for religious freedom. Included pilgrims.
  104. Sir Francis Drake
    Smuggler "Sea Dog"
  105. Sir John Hawkins
    Smuggler "Sea Dog"
  106. Sir Walter Raleigh
    English. Roanoke.
  107. Southern Colonies
    Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. FARMS: Small subsistence farmers. Plantations. Cash crops- tobacco, rice, indigo. ECONOMY: Naval stores, pitch, tar, turpentine. EDUCATION: Few schools, rich had private tutors or sent children north. William and Mary- (1693) Second oldest college in Virginia.
  108. Spanish Armada
    Philip II. English vs. Spanish. Spanish defeated 1588. Went nearly bankrupt. English had strong navy and nationalism. “sea dogs” attacked the Spanish ships.
  109. Squanto
    One of the native tribes that taught Pilgrims to hunt and farm corn. Interpreter for the Europeans.
  110. St. Augustine (1565)
    First settlement in North America by Spanish.
  111. Starving Times (1609-1610)
    Period when Jamestown had low sources of food.
Card Set
Unit One Review (History)