Nutrition Exam III

  1. Function of Iron (Fe)
    • Blood Formation
    • (Fe is part of hemoglobin which is part of the RBC which is invloved in blood formation)
  2. What type of iron can be absorbed best?
    Heme Iron
  3. Heme Iron can be found in
  4. Meat is the most biologically available food source of
  5. enriched bread is a source of
    Iron (non-heme iron)

    enriched bread has little fat
  6. milk is a poor souce of
    Fe and Vitamin C
  7. Absorption of iron occurs in
    small intestine
  8. Absorption of iron
    must be ferrous iron to be absorbed

    change is accomplished in the presense of HCl or ascobic acid (Vitamin C)
  9. Factors affecting Iron Absorption
    • Body's need for iron
    • Ferrous iron with Vitamin C increase Fe absoprtion
    • Caffeine decrease absorption
    • Meal with most iron absorption
  10. Body's need for Iron
    Large dose with decreased need = decreased absorption
  11. Ferrous iron with Vitamin C increase Fe absorption
  12. Caffeine
    • from coffee, tea, cola
    • decreases Fe absorption
    • consume no more than 24 total ounces per day
  13. The meal with most iron absorption
    red meat, sources of vitamin C, no caffeine

    Sources of Vitamin C (starwberries and peppers)
  14. Woman in child bearing years
    have increased Fe needs so they are at an increased risk of Fe deficient (Anemia)
  15. Fe deficient
  16. Cook foods in Fe pans/skillets
    to increase Fe intake
  17. Iron deficiency may result from
    • decreased Fe in the diet
    • blood loss
    • decreased absorption
  18. Symptoms of Anemia
    • decreased red blood cells
    • fatigue
    • apathy
  19. Iodine Deficiency is what kind of desease
  20. Goiter
    swelling of the neck as a result of the enlargement of the thyroid gland
  21. decreased iodine can cause
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  22. The iodization of NaCl has decreased the incidence of
  23. Decreased Zinc = ?
    Decreased taste acuity
  24. Hypogeusia
    Decreased taste acuity
  25. Function of Zinc
    Zinc acts in metallogenzymes

    Metallogenzymes (enzyme taht contain zinc)
  26. Function of Selenium
    • functions as antioxidant along with
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta carotene
  27. Function of Boron
    prevents bone loss in post menopausal women
  28. Water soluble Vitamins
    Vitamin B complex & Vitamin C
  29. Antioxidant
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin E
    • Beta Carotene
    • Selenium
  30. Functions of Vitamin C
    • Collagen formation
    • Facilitates the mineral(Fe)
    • Antioxidant
    • Helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines
    • role with cancer and common cold
  31. Collagen
    • a cement like protein substance that binds cells together
    • part of connective tissue
  32. Vitamin C facilitates what mineral ?
    Fe to be absorded
  33. Vitamin C may alleviate the perceived severity of the symtoms of a cold
  34. Vitamin C helps to decrease the formation of nitrosamines
    nitrosamines - cancer causing agents found in cured meats
  35. Cured meats (source of nitrosamines)
    bacon, ham, polony, salami, pepperoni, sassage, scrapple, hot dog
  36. Food Source of Vitamin C
    • Cabbage family vegetables (broccoli)
    • Kale
    • Peppers
    • Strawberries
    • Citrus
    • Potatoes
    • Tomatoes
    • Cantalope
  37. Best Source of Ascrobic Acid & Beta Carotene
    Fruit & Vegetables
  38. Deficiency of Vitamin C
  39. Symtoms of Scurvy
    • Swollen Gums
    • Bruise easily
    • reopening of old wounds (not enough collagen)
  40. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin)
    • prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia
    • cells are inmature
    • involved in blood formation
  41. Blood Formation
    • Folate
    • Vitamin C
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin B12
  42. FAO suggestion for Folate per day
    400 ug/day
  43. Women in child bearing years need folate to
    prevent the childhood birth defect, spina bifida
  44. 1998, FDA mandates folate to be added to
    all grain products to decrease the incidence of spina bifida
  45. Food Sources of Folate
    Fruits and Vegetables
  46. macrocytic anemia (megaloblastic)
    form of anemia with large cells with normal nerve functioning
  47. pernicious anemia
    form of anemia with large cells but without normal nerve functioning
  48. Functions of Zinc
    • reproduction
    • wound healing
    • affects taste (↓ zinc = ↓ taste acuity) 
    • growth
    • acts in matalloenzymes(enzyme that contains zinc)
  49. Cobalamin
  50. Food Sources of B12
    • animal origin, with meat
    • roast beef, chicken, steak
  51. Strict vegetarians (vegan) must supplement with 
  52. Pyridoxine
  53. When consumed in large amounts will cause toxic
    • Vitamin B6
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  54. Functions of Vitamin B6
    primarily in protein metabolism (involved in transamination and deamination)
  55. Requirements of Pyridoxine (B6)
    Amounts are directly correlated with
  56. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  57. Fat Soluble Vitamins are affected by
    • inpaired fat digestion
    • bile
  58. Precusor of Vitamin A 
    Carotene (Yellow plant pigment)
  59. Functions of Vitamin A
    • Vision - allows vision to dim light (Prevent Xeropthelmia)
    • Xeropthelmia - night-blindness
  60. Carotene stored in 
    • Fat tissue & adrenal glands
    • and maybe responsible for the yellowish tinge to the skin when grearter amounts are consumed and accessed or stored

    Vitamin A stored in liver
  61. Carotenoids are phytochemicals
    Which decrease the risk of heart desease and cancers
  62. Deeper yellow, orange and green =
    increase Vitamin A and Carotene
  63. Deficiency of Vitamin A mostly found in
    pre-school children globally (blindness)
  64. Deficiency of Vitamin A causes
    • changes in the skin  Form of Dermatities = Folliculosis
    • changes in the eyes (cornea)
    • night blindness
  65. Form of Dermatities = Folliculosis
  66. Examples of Deeper yellow, orange and green
    • romain lettuce
    • sweet potatoes
    • carrot
    • pumpkin
    • tomatoes
    • cantolope
    • papaya
    • mango
    • peach (canned provides greater)
  67. Bio-technology (bio-engineer good and genetic modified food)
    Golden rice
  68. Carotene converts to Vitamin A when
    Vitamin A is in low level
  69. Vitamin A would be toxic if consume too much
  70. Carotene is not toxic
  71. Citrus provide no carotene
  72. Precursor in the skin is converted by UV rays to make Vitamin D
  73. Sunshine Vitamin
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin can be made by sun
  74. Elderly are at an increased risk of dificiency of Vitamin D due to
    • decreasing exposure to the sun
    • decreasing milk intake
  75. Rickets is caused by
    children who fail to have a good Calcium Phosphorus ratio in bone
  76. Adult Rickets is called
  77. Calcium requirements for 19-24 years old

    1000mg after age 25
  78. Free Radicals are formed by
    • Breathing
    • Pollution
    • Smoking
    • UV Ray exposure (15 min unprotected sun/day)
  79. Vitamin E as antioxidant
    • Neutralizes free radicals preventing them to increase cellular damage
    • Protects oxidations of fatty acid which decreases underarm odor
  80. Food Sources of Vitamin E
    Vegetable Oils (ex. Soy Bean Oil)
  81. Deficiencies of Vitamin E
    shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malaabsorption (CystieFibrosis)
  82. Sources of Vitamin K
    • Green leafy vegetables
    • From the synthesis of the vitamin by intestinal bacteria
    • Spinach & Asparagus provides Vitamin K & Folate
  83. Newborns don't have the bacteria that synthesizes Vitamin K so
    supplements are recommended
  84. Food Sources of Zinc
    • meat
    • seafood
    • whole grains
  85. what is the most sensitive indicator of Fe stores?
    serum ferritin(stores iron for daily use)
  86. Iron must be ____________  to be absorbed?
    Ferrous Iron
  87. Too much fiber ( above ___ g / day ) ↓  _____________ ?
    nutrient ( Fe ) absorption
  88. Ferrous iron with __________ increase Fe absorption ?
    Vitamin C
  89. Zinc acts in ____________ ?
  90. Functions of Folate (Folic Acid, Folacin)
    • prevents and cures megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia normal nerve functioning.
    • cells are immature
    • involved in blood formation
  91. Folate need ↑ when _________  ↑(during_____ & ______)
    Blood volume ↑during pregnancy & lactation
  92. Food Sources of Folate
    • Concentrated Sources:source of Vitamin B (wheat germ, liver, kidney, yeast, and mushrooms)
    • Significant Sources:Fruits and Vegetables
  93. Functions of Cobalamin (B12)
    • prevents and treats pernicious anemia without normal nerve functioning.
    • cells are immature
  94. Precursor of Vitamin A
  95. Q: which has more Vitamin A?
    1. Corn vs. Sweet Potato
    2. Iceberg lettuce vs. Romaine lettuce
    • 1. Sweet Potato
    • 2. Romaine lettuce
  96. Vitamin E neutralizes free radicals preventing them to increase cellular damage
  97. Deficiencies of Vitamin E shows up in premature infants and in people suffering from malabsorption (Cystic Fibrosis)
Card Set
Nutrition Exam III