Neur Wk3-eye.txt

  1. Eyes treatments -topical anesthetics
    • eye exam
    • removal of for bodyy form eye -temp effects on blink reflex (lost) and corneal epithelium (dried) onset and duration of effects 1 to 15 mins
    • protective patch to protect eye
  2. Eye treatments - anti-infection and antimocrobials
    treat eye infecitons
  3. Eye treatments - lubricants
    • mositen contact lenses and artificial eyses
    • maintain epithelia surgace integrity
    • alleviate discomfort from dry eyes

    • Eye treatments - miotics
    • lower introcoular pressure (IOP) in open angle glacoma
  4. Eye treatments - mydriatics and cyloplegics
    • paralysis of accommodations
    • paralysisn of accommodation
    • paralyzes eye muscles affecting their abilty to focus or accomomodate
    • used in diagnositc procedures and eye surgery
    • muscarinic receptor antagonists - produce both effects
    • a-adrenergic recpetors agonists -produces only mydriasis
  5. Stye or hordeolum
    • leision on upper or lower eylid
    • caused by local staphlococcus abscess
    • treatment - warm compress or bacitracin ointment
  6. Chalazion
    • hardened interal lesion
    • involves meibomian (oil) gland which prevents watery tear fluid from evaporating and absences of oil, dry to develop
    • treatment - bacitracin plus polymixing B or sufacetamide
  7. Dacroyocystitis
    • infection and obstruction of the nasolacrimal apparatus for tear production and drainage
    • -infections microorganism (bacteria, yeast)
    • -smymptoms - swelling tenderness and pain
    • -treatment-surgery and antibodies
  8. Conjunctivitis
    • Inflamation of conjunctiva or superficial covering of the visible sclera (white of the eye) an inner lining of the eye
    • -comprises 30% of all eye complaints
    • -commonly called "pink eye"
    • -symptoms - red swollen eyes with discharge and discomfort
  9. 4 types of Conjunctivitis
    • Viral - affects only onle eye causing excessive eye watering and a light discharge
    • Bacterial - affect both eyes casue a heavy greenish discharge
    • Allergic - affects both eyes casues itching redness and excessive tearing
    • Giant paillary - affects boths eyes casuing contact lens intolerance, itching, heavy discharge, tearing, and red bumps on underside of the eyelids
  10. Glacoma
    • Leading cause of periphal vision loss or blindness
    • two types - open-angle glacoma, closed-angle glacoman
  11. open-angle Glacoma
    • most common form of glacoma
    • progress very slowly a life long condition
    • gradual blockage of dranage channel casue intraocular pressure to build slowly
    • leads to gradual loss ofperipheral (side) vision (also called tunnel vision)
    • asymptomatic until vision loss occurs
  12. Closed-angle Glacoma
    • Total blockage of drainage channel with a sudden increase intraocular pressure
    • Symptoms - Severe eye pain, rainbow halo around lights, blurred vision, headache, nausea/vomiting
    • unless treated immediationly blindness will result (constitutes a medcial emergancy)
  13. Treatments for Glacoma
    • Cholinomietics - increase outflow of aqueous humor
    • a-adrenergic receptor agonists - reduce resistance to outflow of aqueous humor
    • B-adrenergic receptors antagonists - reduce the amoutn of aquesous humor produced
    • Miotics - carebonice anhydrase inhibitors - reduce the rate aqueous humor formation
    • Miotics - Hyperomostics (closed -angle glacoma) - increase movement of fluid through membranes
  14. Corneal abrasions
    • cut or scratch on the corenea from a variet of casues
    • Painful because of sensitivity of the cornea
  15. Corneal abrasions - symptoms
    • teary, red eye
    • blurred vision
    • photphobia
    • heanaches
  16. Corneal abrasions- diagnose
    flouresenein dye is appliled to eye to visualize scrathes on cornea under cobalt-blue filter light
  17. Corneal abrasions -treatment
    • Anitibotics
    • topical NSAIDs
    • Oral analgesics
  18. Uveitis
    Inflamation of the uvear (layer of the eye providingin most of the blood supply to the retina
  19. Uveitis - symptoms
    • blurred vision
    • dark floating spots in the vision
    • eye pain and redness
    • photophbia
  20. Uveitis- 4 types
    • anterior (most prevelant)
    • intermediate
    • postier
    • panuveities
  21. Uveitis - Causes
    • infectious microorganisms,
    • autoimmune disorders
    • toxins
    • neoplasms
  22. Uveitis-treatment
    • topical glucotricosteroids
    • mydriatetics
    • antibodies or antiviral medication
    • sugery
  23. Astigmatims
    • abnormal curvatures of the cornea causign out-of-focus vision
    • May affect one or both eyes (myopia - nearsightness; hyperopia -farsightness)
    • Difficult to see fine detail, either upclose or far away
  24. Presbyopia -
    • loss of accommodation that develops around 45 to 50 years of age
    • vision of distant objects remains unchanged, but with age lens loses some ability to change its curvature to focus on near objects
  25. Cateracts
    • Clouding of the lens
    • three types of cateracts corresponding to the 3 layes of the lens
  26. Nuclear cateracts
    affects center of the eye
  27. Cortical cataracts -
    affects the edges of the lens
  28. Posterior subcapsular cataracts
    affects the bact of the lens
  29. Macular degeneration
    • damages teh center of the retina called teh macula
    • affects 10% of the elderly
    • affects both eyes
    • affects only central vision (neccessary for reading, driving, and facial recognition)
    • peripheral vision unaffected
    • two forms of Macular degeneration
  30. Atrophic or dry macular degeneration
    • ( 70% of cases; blurred vison
    • (objects look distorted and dim and colors look faded)

    • Exudative or wet (hemorrhagic) macular degeneration
    • most distructive
    • characterised by swelling caused by leaky blood vessels in the back of the eye
    • straight lines appear disorted and wavy
    • small dark spot in the center of vision that gradually increased in size causing rapid loss of central vision
  31. Diabetic retinopathy
    • affects 40% of type 1 Diabetsic
    • vision abnormalities range from mild to major loss of eye sight
    • leading cause of blindness in adults 20-65 years of age
    • yearly eye examination including dilated pupils and ophthamoscopy
    • in exudative cases, argon laser photocoagulation to treat potiential microvascular leakage
  32. Retina pigmentosa
    • rare, progressive retina degeneration causing blindness
    • genetic diseases
    • sysmptoms - weakness eye sigth starting in childhood, gradual loss of peripheral vision leading to tunnel visionl; Blindness
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Neur Wk3-eye.txt
Neur Wk3-eye