Neur Wk3-brain2.txt

  1. Concussion
    • casued by a blow to the head
    • Brain injury that may result in a headache altered levels of lertness, loss of consciousness, or memory loss of events surrounding injury
    • most people who sytain a concussion never lose consciousness or even realize thaey had concusssion
  2. Concussions can affect
    • memory
    • judgement
    • reflexes
    • speech
    • balance and coordination
  3. Contusion
    a form of traumatic brain injury that may lead to leakage of small blood vessels in the brain(blood clots may form and the brain swells interupting motor functions of the brain)
  4. Treatments for a contusion
    surgery to reduce intracranial pressure and remove blood clot
  5. Skull fracture
    • Break in a bone surrounding the brain
    • may occur with or without brain damage
  6. Complications of Skull fractures
    • Brain stem (vital cener) disruption may occur iwth fracture at base of the skull
    • increased cerbrospinal fulid
    • bleeding
    • incrfeased intracranial pressure
    • bacerial infection
  7. Brain hemorrhage (AKA hematoma)
    • Considered a type of stroke
    • caused by artery in the brain bursting and produsing localized bleeding in the surrounding tissues
    • accoutns for about 13% of strokes
    • often casue by a skull fracture
  8. What happens during a brain hemorrhage
    • blood from trauma irritaes brain tissues cand cause swelling aka cerebral edema
    • pooled blood collects into a mass called a hematoma
    • these conditions increase pressure on nearby brain tissue, and reduce vital blookd flow and kills brain cells
  9. two types of brain hemorrhages
    • extradural or epidural hemorrhage -bleeding into the space between the dura mater and the skull
    • subdural hemorrhage - collection of blood on the surface of the brain
  10. Brain tumors-benign tumors
    • may grow and compress vital nerve centers
    • encapsulated
    • removed surgically
    • example - astrocytoma, behign slow-growing tumor
  11. Malignant tumors
    • May have exensive projections and invade other tissues making complete removal difficult or impossible
    • usuallyl metastasize form other organs such as lung and breast
  12. primary malignant tupors of the brain
    • gliomas-tumors of glial (cell that supports the verve tissue) cells
    • i.e. giobastomas are highly maligant, rapidly-growing tumors
  13. Symptoms Malignant tumors
    • headaches due to increased intracranial pressure
    • behavioral or personality changes
    • memory loss
    • visual disturbancess
    • imparied speech
    • muscle weakness
    • impaired corrdination
    • seizures
    • coma
  14. Diagnositic procedures of Malignant tumors
    brain imaging
  15. Treatment Malignant tumors
    • osmotic diuretics
    • glucocorticosteroids
    • surgery
  16. Cranial nerve disease
    • trigeminal neuraligia, aka tic doulorex
    • inflamation of the fith cranial or trigeminal verve
    • casuses severe intermittent pain
    • idiopathic
    • know triggers include stress MS, tumor compressing the nerve
  17. Treatment for cranial nerve disease
    • pain med
    • anitconvulsant med
    • centrally-actiing muscle relaxants
    • alcohol or phenol injection into nerve as it exits skull for cases
    • rhizotomy
  18. Ball's palsy
    • inflamation of the seventh cranial or facial nerve that innervates facial muscle and salavary gladns
    • causes saddign of facial muscle on one side of the face and watery eye
    • causes frooling and slurred speech
    • idopathic
    • known triggers include viruses, autoimmune disorders or vascular ischemia
    • recovery takes weeks
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Neur Wk3-brain2.txt
Neur Wk3-brain2