1. How does a cirrhotic patient develop hyperestrinism
    • decrease androstenedione catabolism (inc estrogen)
    • increase in SHBG (higher estrogen:testosterone ratio)
  2. Cystic fibrosis in the eccrine duct
    cant reabsorb Cl- and Na+ back -> kid played soccer and eperienced hypovolemic shock
  3. Dermatitis Herpetiformis
    • erythematous prurtiis
    • papules
    • vesicles
    • bullae over extensor surface

    Associated with celiac disease
  4. Reason for shrinkage in renal artery stenosis
    nutrient and O2 deprivation
  5. Granulosa theca cell tumors secrete what
    Secrete estrogen (call exner bodies)
  6. Bunch of grapes of fertile female vagina with bleeding
    • hydatiform mole
    • check hCG for choriocarcinoma risk
  7. Aspiration of Echinococcus granulosus cyst leads to what
    anaphylatic shock
  8. Prenteral nturition leading to gallstones
    decrease in enteral stimuli which leads to a decrease in CCK which leads to biliary stasis and ths gallstones
  9. How is copper excreted
    Unabsorbed copper is excreted into bile
  10. Urticaria description
    Superficial edema and lymphatic channel dilation
  11. Sepsis and shock lead to ARDS. What are findings
    • Pulmonary interstitial and intralveolar edema
    • inflammation of alveoli
    • hyaline membrane
  12. ARDS physio findings
    • decrease lung compliance
    • increase work of breath
    • V/Q mismatch greater
    • increase capillary permeability
  13. Hep B presentation
    serum sickness like syndrome in prodromal period
  14. Pulmonary artery hypertension
    • BMPR2 gene predisposes
    • 2nd insult -> vascular smooth muscle proliferation
  15. Ovarian cancer marker
  16. Effects of Parvovirus in the adult
    Symmetrical involvement of the proximal interphalangeal joints, metacarpals, knee and ankle joints
  17. How do osteoblast activate osteoclast -> (physio that explains Pagets disease)
    Osteoblast secretes MCSF and RANKL
  18. Mutation in FAS gene in SLE leads to what
    Impaired conal deletion of auto-reactive Tcells
  19. How does external androgens -> acne development
    • Causes
    • Follicular epidermal hyperproliferation
    • excessive sebum production
  20. Side effect of the first line treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis
    Methotrexate -> stomatitis and liver function abnormality
  21. How doe the tetanus vaccine exert its effect upon exposure to C. tetani
    It is an antitoxin ab that neutralizes the bacterial product
  22. What is the anatomy involed behind the Trendelenburg sign
    Damage to superior gluteal nerves -> gluteus minimi and medius -> hip drop when standing on affected leg
  23. What is rheumatoid factor
    IgM that binds to Fc portion og IgG causing immune complexes
  24. What to be aware of with etanercept
    It is a receptor that binds TNF a thus inactivating it -> reactivation of TB
  25. Major toxin of C. perfringens
    Lecithinase, a phospholipase C product, that induces cell lysis, necrosis and edema
  26. What is responsible for reactive arthritis
    • HLA-B27 activated process that occurs after chlamydia, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia infection.
    • Is not an infectious process!!!
  27. Presentation of a patient with homocystinuria
    • ectopia lentis
    • Mental retardation
    • marfanoid habitus
    • osteoporosis
    • vascular problems
  28. How does insulin cause acanthosis nigricans
    Stimulate epidermal and dermal proliferation
  29. What integrates DNA genome and increases the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma
  30. What is a xanthoma
    Benign macrophage that consists of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides in the cytoplasm of the macrophage
  31. What is the characteristic for Primary TB
    • Lower lobe ghon complex:
    • calcified lesion
    • I/L hilar lymphadenopathy
  32. Histo of primary biliary cirrhosis
    • granulomatous destruction of interlobular bile ducts
    • lymphocytosis
  33. Sarcoidosis vitamin D effect
    • Hypervitaminosis D
    • -> hypercalcemia, confusion, polyuria, polydipsia, anorexia, painful bone breakdown
  34. What precipitates hepatic encephalopathy
    • increase N absorption in the gut
    • Increase levels precipitated by imbalance of N via gastrointestinal bleed
  35. What does urinary blood flow obstruction cause in the kidneys
    • hydronephrosis:
    • ischemia, nephron loss, cortical atrophy
  36. Pemphigus vulgaris gross presentation
    Painful flaccid bullae and erosions of skin and mucosal membranes
  37. What does gallbladder hypomobility lead to
    • biliary sludge which consists of:
    • cholesterol monohydrate crystals
    • Calcium bilirubinate
    • muscus
    • -> increase potential for gallstones
  38. Biliary cirrhosis causes what signs of cholestasis
    hypercholesterolemia -> xanthelasma
  39. Reye syndrome histo
    microvesicular steatosis of hepatocytes
  40. EBV t(8:14)
    c-myc -> transcription activator
  41. What would a universal Hep B vaccine cause
    decrease in worldwide incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  42. Statistically why is metacholine a good test for asthma diagnosis
    It has a high sensitivity so it is a good rule out exam
  43. Stages of lobar pneumonia
    • Congested
    • red hepatization
    • gray hepatization
    • resolution
  44. What is ecchymosis
    Cutaneous or subcutaneous extravastion of blood that is = or > 1 cm in diameter
  45. Hypoalbuminemia and prolong PT signify what?
    Liver failure
  46. A mutation in BRAF signifies what
  47. What is permanent in Korsakoff syndrome even after thiamine replenishment
    Memory and learning impairment
  48. What is the risk associated with porcelain gallbladder
    • = rim of ca2+ outline
    • leads to gallbladder carcinomas
  49. What are apoptotic hepatocytes
    round acidophilic bodies (Councilman bodies)
  50. What is gross finding of cirrhosis
    diffuse hepatic fibrosis with replacement or normal tissue with fibrous lined parenchymal nodules
  51. Which stones are radiolucent on xray
    Uric acid stones
Card Set
Review 4