CDO 338 9.1 Assessment
Purpose of an initial evaluation
1.Determine the reality of the problem
-Describe Artic/Phono development/status.
-Determine if deviation from normal expectations warrant concern or intervention.
2.Determine the etiology(ies)
-Identify factors that relate to the presence or maintenance of the speech disorder.
3.Provide a clinical focus as to potential treatment approaches
-Monitor changes in A/P abilities across time.
Assessment process includes
Planning for treatment
Assessment Process Overview
2. Data Gathering
3. The Diagnostic/Evaluation
5. Diagnosis or conclusions
7. Share clinical findings
Allows clinician to
Anticipate areas needing assessment
Identify topics requiring further clarification
Pre-select appropriate evaluation materials and procedures
Case History asks questions about:
General nature of communication &problem
General development; motor, cognitive, social,
History of support services
The Case History: Limitations
Respondent does not give enough information
Significant time has elapsed between problem onset and time of assessment
Other life events have hindered respondents ability to recall
Cultural differences may have interfered.
An opportunity to obtain information regarding the situation.
Summarize Major points from interview
The Diagnostic/Evaluation Procedures
A. A comprehensive phonetic-phonemic evaluation is the core.
-Sample client’s speech. (Client Observation)
-Formal & Informal Tests
-Conversational speech assessment in varying contexts
-Measures of intelligibility
B.Oral-facial mechanism examination: structural & functional
D.Hearing Screening (obtain information about hearing abilities)
E.Screen related and collateral areas.
Speech Intelligibility can also be evaluated from a speech/language sample.
It is required by law to have a speech sample of at least 20 utterances.
B.Analyze & integrate data (Evaluate assessment info) to determine
Clients Strengths & Weaknesses
Diagnosis or conclusions
A.Statement of Severity
B.Statement of Prognosis
Share clinical findings...
through an interview with client or caregiver, or other indicated professionals as requested via informal verbal summary and a formal written record (Evaluation report).
Protocol (Structure/Tools) will Differ based on
-Type of Disorder
-Involvement of Caregiver
(Evaluation by the Clinician)
-Collecting Data-through formal and informal observation. Notice features of articulation
Assists in “tuning in your ear” for the pattern of artic/phono being used.
Allows clinician opportunity to solidify procedures being planned.
Formal and Informal Procedures
-Collecting a Speech Sample
-Oral Mechanism/Peripheral Examination
1. Easy to give/score
2. Provide clinician with a quantifiable list of “incorrect” sound productions in different word positions.
3. Yields a standardized score. –important for insurance companies
A formal test places into common language and measurement...
what an excellent clinician already knows or suspects
Formal Artic/Phono Tests
1. Sounds in words (initial medial final); may not represent child’s ability to produce a particular sound under natural speech conditions.
2. Do not provide enough information about phonological system.
3. Not test all sounds
: no vowels and few consonant clusters.
4. Probes a limited number of chances for each exemplar to occur.
Considerations in selection of Artic/Phono tests
1. Appropriateness for age/developmental level of client
2. Format for Error Analysis==Artic or Phono or Both
3. Normed Referenced yielding standard score or is it Criterion Referenced
a. Reliability of Test
b. Validity of Test
Common types of tests
Do not attempt to compare an individual’s performance to anyone else’s, rather they identify what a client and cannot do compared to a predefined criterion.
Answers the ?—How does a client’s performance compare to an expected level of performance
Normed Reference test are always standardized. They allow a comparison of an individuals performance to the performance of a larger group, called the normative group.
Statistical Considerations of Tests
Reliability: the dependability of a test or procedure to result in consistent results over repeated administrations and by different examiners
Validity: the degree to which a procedure actually measures what it proposes to measure.
CDO 338 9.1 Assessment