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  1. Triangular sail that enables ships to tack and beat against the wind more easily than a square-rigged sail
    Lateen Sail
  2. Early scientific instrument used for determining latitude and time of day, based on the angle of the sun or the pole star above the horizon
  3. Ocean-going ship developed in 15th-century Portugal; three-masted, squared- and lateen-rigged, with rounded hull and high bow and stern
  4. Portuguese crusader in Africa and royal founder of a school for sea captains to study cartography, astronomy, and navigation (1394 – 1460)
    Prince Henry the Navigator
  5. Portuguese explorer who rounded the Cape of Good Hope and was the first European to reach India by sea (1498)
    Vasco da Gama
  6. Indigenous people who encountered Columbus at his first landfall; he named them “los Indios”
  7. Portuguese navigator commissioned by Spain; reached Asia by sailing west; one of his ships circumnavigated the globe by 1522
    Ferdinand Magellan
  8. First English navigator to explore the west coast of the Americas as far north as Vancouver Island and to circumnavigate the world (1577 - 1580)
    Sir Francis Drake
  9. Danish navigator commissioned by Russia to explore the North Pacific Ocean as far as the Arctic Ocean (Bering Strait) and the coast of Alaska
    Vitus Bering
  10. British navigator who charted the Pacific Ocean (1768 – 1780),from Antarctica to the Arctic Ocean, including Australia, New Zealand, and the Sandwich Islands (Hawai’i)
    James Cook
  11. Portuguese admiral who established fortified trading posts from Hormuz in the Persian Gulf (1508) to Melaka in the East Indies (1511)
    Alfonso d’Alboquerque
  12. United East India Company, owned by Dutch investors (founded 1602)
  13. A trading or market center, where goods are stored and from which they are distributed
  14. Claimed Philippine archipelago for Spain and named it after his patron, King Phillip II (1565—same year as the founding of St. Augustine in Spanish Florida)
    Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
  15. Founded Batavia (modern Jakarta) as a Dutch trading center on Java (1619)
    Jan Pieterszoon Coen
  16. Native to, prevalent in, or confined to a certain region
  17. Marine shells collected in the Maldive Islands and introduced to Africa by European merchants for use as currency in the slave trade
Card Set
ch 20
ch 20