Surg 126

  1. Medications administered to prevent reapsorption of sodium and water
  2. Diurectics are used in management of
    hypertension, CHF and glaucoma
  3. Mineral that are dissolved in body fluids
  4. Potassium seriously depleted
  5. Potassium levels either too high or too low can cause
    cardiac dysrhythmias
  6. Long term diuretic therapy is most common in
  7. Diuretics are used during surgery to
    reduce intraocular, and intracranial pressure; or to protect kidney function
  8. The risk of hypokalemia is reduced when diuretics are used for
    short term treatment
  9. Diuretica lower BP by
    • increasing elimination of fluids
    • decreases blood volume
  10. What may cause the delay or rescheduling of a surgery?
    Long term diuretic therapy
  11. What requires the insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter?
    Short term intraoperative use of diuretics
  12. The primary funtion of the renal system is to
    maintain homeostasis
  13. What is the microscopic filtering unit that removes water and waste solutes?
    the nephron
  14. Blood is brought to the nephron through the Afferent arteriole into the
    • Bowmans capsule;
    • where filtration occurs
  15. A process of forcing fluids and solutes through the membrane by pressure
  16. Filtered blood returns to the circulatory system through the
    efferent arteriole
  17. What takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule and the Loop of Henle?
    tubular reapsorption
  18. What eliminates waste products and controls blood PH?
    tubular secretion
  19. Highly potent diuretics used to remove fluid from renal, hepatic and used to treat pulmonary edema
    Loop diuretics
  20. What diuretics work by DECREASING the reapsorption of sodium and cloride?
    Loop diuretics
  21. The most commonly used loop diuretic?
    • Furosemide
    • intracranial procedures
  22. The elimination of large amounts of urine
  23. Low potency diuretics used to treat hypertension and edema
    Thiazide diuretics
  24. INHIBIT the reabsorption of 5% to 10% of the sodium load
    Thiazide diuretics
  25. Low potency diuretics ued to treat edem and hypertension used in combination with other diuretics
    • Potassium sparing diuretics
    • Adverse effects: hyperkalemia
  26. Inhibit oly 1% to 3% of the sodium load by altering membrane permeability
    Potassium sparing diuretics
  27. Low potency diuretics used to treat glaucoma
    urine output is not significant
    • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
    • active in formation of aqueous humor
    • Most common Acetazolamide ( diamox )
  28. Highly potent diuretics that increase blood pressure and volume by drawing fluid out the circulatory system rapidly
    Osmotic diuretics
  29. What diuretics are contraindicated in patients with hypertension and edema and are used to prevent renal failure after cadiac surgery?
    Osmotic diuretics
  30. What exerts their effects through the process of osmosis.
    Most common Osmitrol and mannitol may be used
    Osmotic diuretics
  31. The primary intracellular electrolyte in the body
  32. Plays a vital role in nerve impulse condutin, acid balance and promotion of carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  33. Potassium levels in a normal range
    3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
  34. Excess of potassium
  35. Too low potassium levels
  36. Abnormal potassium level can lead to
    Cardiac arrest
  37. Chemical released by endocrine glands
  38. What maintains homeostasis by altering the activities of specific target cells?
  39. The endocrine system works with the ____ to relay messages to maintain homeostasi
    nervous system
  40. Steriod hormons are derived from
  41. Nonsteriod hormones are synthesized from
    Amino acids
  42. The majority of endocrine disorders are due to hyposecretion or hypersecretion of
  43. Amine hormones include
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • thyroxine
  44. Plays a vital role in reproduction and growth and also regulates renal system funtion and the thyroid gland.
    pituitary gland
  45. the lobe that communicates with the hypothalamus through factors released in the blood
  46. The hypothalamus sythesizes oxytocin and trasports hormones to the ___ where they are released
  47. What stimulate uterine contractions and stops postpartum bleeding
  48. What gland sets the rate of metabolism?
    thyroid gland
  49. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is
    Graves disease
  50. What helps to control calcium and phosphate concentration in the blood
Card Set
Surg 126
Diuretics and Hormones