Medications administered to prevent reapsorption of sodium and water
Diurectics are used in management of
hypertension, CHF and glaucoma
Mineral that are dissolved in body fluids
Potassium seriously depleted
Potassium levels either too high or too low can cause
Long term diuretic therapy is most common in
Diuretics are used during surgery to
reduce intraocular, and intracranial pressure; or to protect kidney function
The risk of hypokalemia is reduced when diuretics are used for
short term treatment
Diuretica lower BP by
increasing elimination of fluids
decreases blood volume
What may cause the delay or rescheduling of a surgery?
Long term diuretic therapy
What requires the insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter?
Short term intraoperative use of diuretics
The primary funtion of the renal system is to
What is the microscopic filtering unit that removes water and waste solutes?
Blood is brought to the nephron through the Afferent arteriole into the
where filtration occurs
A process of forcing fluids and solutes through the membrane by pressure
Filtered blood returns to the circulatory system through the
What takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule and the Loop of Henle?
What eliminates waste products and controls blood PH?
Highly potent diuretics used to remove fluid from renal, hepatic and used to treat pulmonary edema
What diuretics work by DECREASING the reapsorption of sodium and cloride?
The most commonly used loop diuretic?
The elimination of large amounts of urine
Low potency diuretics used to treat hypertension and edema
INHIBIT the reabsorption of 5% to 10% of the sodium load
Low potency diuretics ued to treat edem and hypertension used in combination with other diuretics
Potassium sparing diuretics
Inhibit oly 1% to 3% of the sodium load by altering membrane permeability
Potassium sparing diuretics
Low potency diuretics used to treat glaucoma
urine output is not significant
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
active in formation of aqueous humor
Most common Acetazolamide ( diamox )
Highly potent diuretics that increase blood pressure and volume by drawing fluid out the circulatory system rapidly
What diuretics are contraindicated in patients with hypertension and edema and are used to prevent renal failure after cadiac surgery?
What exerts their effects through the process of osmosis.
Most common Osmitrol and mannitol may be used
The primary intracellular electrolyte in the body
Plays a vital role in nerve impulse condutin, acid balance and promotion of carbohydrate and protein metabolism
Potassium levels in a normal range
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Excess of potassium
Too low potassium levels
Abnormal potassium level can lead to
Chemical released by endocrine glands
What maintains homeostasis by altering the activities of specific target cells?
The endocrine system works with the ____ to relay messages to maintain homeostasi
Steriod hormons are derived from
Nonsteriod hormones are synthesized from
The majority of endocrine disorders are due to hyposecretion or hypersecretion of
Amine hormones include
Plays a vital role in reproduction and growth and also regulates renal system funtion and the thyroid gland.
the lobe that communicates with the hypothalamus through factors released in the blood
The hypothalamus sythesizes oxytocin and trasports hormones to the ___ where they are released
What stimulate uterine contractions and stops postpartum bleeding
What gland sets the rate of metabolism?
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is
What helps to control calcium and phosphate concentration in the blood
Diuretics and Hormones