Biol 120

  1. Hippocrates
    • -theory of pangenesis
    • -particles called pangenes travel from each part of a persons body to the eggs/sperms and are then passed on
  2. Aristotle
    -believed genetics was inherited through the blood, with vital heat
  3. Epigenesis Theory
    • -william harvey
    • -organism is derived from substances present in the egg, which differentiate into adult structures during embryonic development
  4. Atomic Theory
    • -all matter is composed of small invisible units called atoms
    • -John Dalton
  5. Cell (germ) theory
    • -Louis Pasteur
    • -all organisms are made up of cells, which are derived from other cells
  6. Fixity of Species
    • -Carolus Linnaeus
    • -members of a species can only give rise to other members of the species
    • -implied that all species are independently created (wrong)
  7. Theory of Origin of Species
    • -Charles Darwin
    • -species arose by descent with modification from other ancestral species
  8. Gregor Mendel
    • -1822-1884
    • -raised on a pea farm after given up to monastery
    • -studied math and botany at university of vienna
  9. Mendel's Experiments
    • -chose to work with peas because they were easily cultivated, many distinguishable varieties and can be cross pollinated by hand
    • -tested 7 different traits
  10. Mendel's First Law
    • -law of segregation
    • -when any individual produces gametes, the allels seperate, so that each gamete recieves only one member of the pair of alleles
  11. Mendel's Second Law
    • -law of independent assortment
    • -alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation
  12. Incomplete Dominance
    -type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an intermediate appearance between phenotypes of the parents(flower color, red and white make pink)
  13. Codominance
    -condition where an individual expresses both alleles in a heterozygote (blood types)
  14. Pleiotrpy
    -the determination of more than one character by a single gene 
  15. Multiple Alleles
    -occurence of a gene that exists as three or more alleles in a population (similar to blood types again, could be any 2 unit combination of A B and O, so the three choices are the multiple alleles, but you can still only have two)
  16. Polygenic Inheritance
    -the additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic (skin, eye color etc. Takes more than one gene to decide the outcome)
  17. Cytoplasmic Transmission
    (extranuclear inheritance)
    • -mitochondrial and chloroplasts retain some of their own genetic material which is seperate from the cells nucleus
    • -mostly maternal influenced
    • -can be a possibility for infectious disease
  18. Sex Chromosomes
    • -humans XY male and XX female
    • -Birds and fish XX (called ZZ) male and female XY (ZW)
    • -Grasshoppers XX female and XO male
    • -ants and bees sex determined by chromosome number, female from diploid, male from haploid
  19. Chiasma
    -crossing over of traits between homolgous chromosomes, occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis
  20. Turner Syndrome
    • -only has one X chromosome not XX
    • -sterile
  21. Down Syndrome
    • -3 chromosome 21
    • -reduced learning capacity
    • -oval eyes
  22. Klinefelter Syndrome
    • -XXY males
    • -sterile
  23. Autosomal Inheritance
    -non sex linked inheritance, you only need to get it from one parent
Card Set
Biol 120