PHYL Final

  1. What is the difference between male and female urethras?
    Male urethra connected to eject sperm. Female just use for pee.
  2. 2 major layers of kidney?
    Renal Cortex

    Renal Medulla
  3. Where is left kidney located?
  4. Where is right kidney located?
  5. What vessels supply waste to kidneys?
    Renal artery.
  6. What removes waste from kidneys?
  7. What part of the nephron is water permeable?
    Descending loop.
  8. What part is water permeable depending on ADH?
    Collecting ducts.
  9. What are the two types of nephrons?

  10. Which is the shorter of the two?

    A) Cortical
    B) Juxtamedullary
    A) Cortical
  11. Where is the parietal epithelium on the bowman's capsule?
    The outside of the "bulb".
  12. Where is the visceral epithelium?
    On the proximal/distal tube structures.
  13. What's a podocyte?
    Visceral epithelial cells that wrap around the glomerulus and filter fluid.
  14. What are parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
    Macula cells

    Juxtaglomerular cells
  15. Basic function of the kidney?
    Acid/base balance

  16. What does ADH do?
    Allows body to reabsorb water.
  17. What does aldosterone do to the kidney?
    Allows more salt to be reabsorbed.
  18. How does kidney regulate osmolarity?
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
    • Filtration
  19. What is GFR?
    Glomerulus Filtration Rate
  20. Afferent arteriole?
    The arteriole where blood is coming in.
  21. Efferent arteriole?
    Part where blood is going back out.
  22. What happens to GFR when Aff. arteriole is closed?
    • Pc - Down
    • F - Down
  23. What happens to GFR when Aff. arteriole is open?
    • Pc - Up
    • F - Up
  24. What happens to GFR when Eff. arteriole is open?
    • Pc - Down
    • F - Down
  25. What happens to GFR when Eff. arteriole is closed?
    • Pc - Up
    • F - Up
  26. What does ANP do to filtration?
    • Increases GFR
    • inhibits renin
    • decreases sodium reabsorption
  27. What triggers ANP?
    Angiotensin II
  28. What is Myogenic Mechanism?
    The response to changing blood pressure to keep the flow in the vessels constant.
  29. What is tubuloglomerular feedback?
    Changes in GFR are detected by the renal tubule, which sends feedback signals to the glomerulus, bringing GFR to a normal level.
  30. What is the JGA?
    JuxtaGlomurular Apparatus.
  31. What is the macula densa?
    Cells around the distal tube. Detect water volume. If low, release Renin.
  32. What part of the nephron reabsorbs 60-70% of fluid?
    Proximal tube.
  33. What occurs in the decending loop of henle?
    Water to body.
  34. What occurs in the thin ascending loop?
    Na+ ions back to body.
  35. What occurs in the thick ascending loop?
    K+ ions back to body.
  36. What occurs in the Distal Convoluted Tubial?
    • Regulates pH. (Na+, HCO3-)
    • Regulates sodium, potassium, calcium levels
  37. What symport is found on the apical membrane of the DCT?
    NaCl symport.
  38. What occurs in the collecting duct?
    Water regulation.
  39. What are principal cells in the collecting duct?
    Allows transport of Na and K and water.
  40. What are intercalated cells in the collecting duct?
    Acid-Base homeostasis.
  41. What is the RAAS system stand for?
    Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System.
  42. What is the RAAS system do?
    Regulate long term blood pressure and volume.
  43. Where is angiotensin made?
  44. Where is converted to angiotensin I? What enzyme does this?
    Kidney. Renin.
  45. Where is angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II? What enzyme does this?
    Lungs. ACE.
  46. What does angiotensin II do to the brain?
    Release ADH. Thrist.
  47. What does angiotensin II do to the adrenal gland?
    Release aldosterone.
  48. Other than stimulate the brain and the adrenal gland, what else does angiotensin II do?
    Vasal constriction.
  49. What does ADH do to the kidney?
    More water to be reabsorbed.
  50. What does aldosterone do to the kidney?
    Allows more salt to be reabsorbed.
  51. What is the counter current mechanism?
    When water is filtering out from the loop of henle, sodium pulls water back in through osmosis.
  52. What is renal plasma clearance?
    The amount of blood filtered by the kidney.
  53. What is dialysis?
    Kidney failure.
  54. What is respiratory acidosis? Cause? Solution?
    Problem with the lungs. Blood too acidic. Kidneys hold onto the base.
  55. What is metabolic acidosis? Cause? Solution?
    Problem with the kidneys. Blood too alkaline. Lungs hold onto CO2 (base).
  56. Respiratory alkalosis. Cause? Solution?
    Something wrong with lungs. Blood too alkaline. Kidneys release base (Hco3-)
  57. Metabolic alkilosis? Cause? Solution?
    Something wrong with kidneys. Blood too alkaline. Lungs keep Co2 (acid).
  58. What is creatine phosphate? (immediate source of ATP?)
    It can donate phosphate group to ADP making ATP during intense muscular effort.
  59. What happens in anaerobic glycolysis?
    Glucose > Pyruvate > Lactate
  60. How many ATP from glycolysis?
  61. What happens in aerobic glycolysis?
    Goes to TCA cycle.
  62. What goes on in TCA cycle?
    Pyruvate > ACoA > Citrate > Isocitrate > Alpha-Gluterate> Succinocule > Succinate > Fumaric > Malate > Oxaloacitate > Citrate.
  63. What comes after Citrate in TCA cycle?
  64. What comes after Isocitrate in TCA cycle?
  65. What comes after Alpha-gluterate in TCA cycle?
  66. What comes after Succinoclue in TCA cycle?
  67. What comes after Succinate in TCA cycle?
  68. What comes after Fumaric in TCA cycle?
  69. What comes after Malate in TCA cycle?
  70. What comes after Oxaloacitate in TCA cycle?
  71. How many ATP from ETC?
  72. How many ATP form Kreb's/TCA cycle?
  73. What steps in glycolysis is ATP used?
    1, 3
  74. What steps in glycolysis is ATP produced?
    7, 10.
  75. Final electron acceptor in anaerobic glycolysis?
  76. What product from glycolysis goes into TCA cycle?
  77. Where is glycogenesis activated?
  78. What's glycogenesis for? What hormone is involved?
    Response to high blood glucose. Stores glucose in glycogen for storage. Insulin.
  79. What is Glycogenolysis? What hormone is involved?
    Breakdown of glycogen to glucose. Glucagon.
  80. What happens in Glycogenolysis?
    Glucose-1 phosphate to glucose-6 phosphate.
  81. What is Gluconeogenesis?
    Make glucose from non-carb sources, like amino acids.
  82. What is Beta oxidation?
    Fats broken down for energy.
  83. What is lipolysis?
    Hydrolysis of lipids.
  84. What is Lipogenesis?
    A-CoA to fats.
  85. What is ketosis?
    State where being has elevated levels of ketone bodies from fat breakdown for energy.
  86. End product of protein metabolism?
    Urea. Ammonium. Creatine.
  87. What is ammonia turned into in urea cycle?
  88. What are fat soluble vitamins?
    Vitmains A, D, E, K that are absorbed in GI tract with help from lipids. Doesn't get extracted through urine.
  89. What two hormones stiumlate gluconeogenesis?
  90. What electrolytes are inside the cell?
    K+, PO43-, Mg++
  91. What electrolytes are outside cell?
    Na, Cl, Ca.
  92. What happens in the thick ascending loop?
  93. Is the thick ascending loop water permeable?
  94. What are the 3 layers between glomerulus and nephron?
    • Endothelium
    • Basement membrane
    • Epithelium (podocytes)
  95. What are the 3 active functions of nephron?
    • Filtration
    • Secretion
    • Reabsorption
  96. What is the passive result of the kidney regulating osmolarity?
  97. What structure produces sperm?
  98. Where does sperm mature?
  99. Where is non-viable sperm reabsorbed?
    Seminal vesicles.
  100. What are the 3 parts of the urethra?
    Spongy, Prostatic, Ejaculatory duct.
  101. What are the 2 cells that assist in growth and maturation of the spermatogonia?
    • Sertoli
    • Leydig
  102. What are sertoli cells also called?
    Nurse cells.
  103. What are leydig cells also called?
    Interstitial cells.
  104. How does the balls drop?
    The testes shift places as the fetus grows.
  105. When do the balls drop?
    7 months to birth.
  106. What happens in the seminiferous tubules?
    Sperm maturation.
  107. What cells mature sperm?
    Leydig and Sertoli cells.
  108. What is spermatogenesis?
    The process of maturation of sperm.
  109. What is spermiogenesis?
    The last stage of spermatogenesis. Spermatids mature into sperm.
  110. What is mitosis?
    Copy all 23 pairs of chromosomes into a cell.
  111. What is meiosis?
    Copy just one side of the 23 pairs of chromosomes into a cell.
  112. What are sertoli cells for?
    Nurse sperm cells through process.
  113. What are leydig cells for?
    LH stimulates them to release testosterone.
  114. What does FSH do to male gonads?
    Make sperm
  115. What does LH do to male gonads?
    Make testosterone.
  116. What do seminal vesicles do?
    Secrete the fluid that makes sperm "semen"
  117. What do the prostate gland do?
    Secrete the "white" liquid that is basic. It fights the acidity of the vag.
  118. What does bulbourethral gland make?
    "pre-cum" makes the sperm travel easier.
  119. What produces eggs?
  120. Where do eggs mature?
  121. What is the follicle?
    The place where the egg is.
  122. What is the corpus luteum?
    Follicle turns into this after ovulation. Secretes progesterone and estrogen.
  123. What is corpus albicans?
    Corpus luteum turns into this after it dies.
  124. What cells used in maturing the egg?
    • Granulosa
    • Theca
  125. Granulosa cells do what?
    Form a layer around the follice.
  126. Theca cells do what?
    Produce androgens that combine with granulosa cells to make estradiol.
  127. What do suspensory ligaments hold up?
  128. What do broad ligament hold up?
    Uterus from moving up and down.
  129. What do ovarian ligament do?
    connects the ovary to uterus.
  130. What stages are frozen?
    Metaphase I

    Prophase II
  131. What is oogenesis?
    Creation of an egg.
  132. What receptors are in schincters?
  133. What receptors are in the bladder?
  134. "pril" in a drug means what?
    ACE blocker.
  135. Which is fast to react? Lungs or kidney?
  136. What does the drug Diamax do?
  137. Sterocilia is for?
    Reabsorb sperm.
  138. What is cryptorchidism?
    Balls didn't drop.
  139. What is hydrocele?
    Fluid around a body cavity.
  140. What is a gubernaculum?
    bungee cord that holds down testes to sack.
  141. What does the cremaster muscle do?
    Moves balls up n down.
  142. What's in the sperm head?
    The choromomes.
  143. What's in the sperm middle?
    The ATP to make it move.
  144. What controls erections?

    C) PNS
  145. What controls ejaculations?

    D) SNS
  146. Salping o'pe rectemy deals with what?
    ovaries/fellopian tubes
  147. Mesovarium secretes what?
    Serious fluid.
Card Set
PHYL Final