- small microorganism but larger than virus
- small size can be seen under light microscope
- minute infectious microorganism
- can only been seen in an electron microscope
- they require a living cell to replicate
- can be grown in a lab inside human or animal cells
the bacteriain our bodies that do not course us harm, they will only cause illness if in extreme numbers
when a pathogenic agent infects the body and multiplys inside the bodyresulting in infection.
skin, tears, cilla, coughing, sneezing, the mucous developed in the respiratory system also
- lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus gland and there products lymphocytes and antibodies.
- when there is an infection the immune system sends the immue defence to the area and ingests the bacteria or virus.
- Proteins released during this attract immune cells and cause heat and inflammation
foreign substance that enters the body to induce the formstion of antibodies that interact with it.
- this is a substance developed by the body because of and to interact with an certain antigen.
- antibodies are present due to previous inffection, vaccine or maternal antibodies in first 6 weeks of life.
state of being protected against a disease. meaning the body has the right antibodies to fight off the antigens that have entered the body.
duration of immunity
types of immunity:
- passive: given to the individual from another indevidiual exp through maternal milk
- Active: the introduction of an active agent through vaccination
vaccine contains all or part of a infectious agent causing the body to fight it off creating antibodies for that disease if the animal is to contract it in the future.
live virus vaccine (LV)
- contains live virus and grows multiples inside the animal causing a strong immune response.
- not used very often
- do not contain adjuvant
modified live virus vaccine (MLV)(ML)
- A modified live vaccine contains only those virus or bacterial necessary ot provide immunity.
- Generally safer
- Contain adjuvant
- using dead virus will still activate an immune responce but not as strong a responce as other two types of vaccines.
- these vaccines generally contain an adjuvant
- as a normal response after vaccination:
- lump at injection site
- usually seen in 1-5% of patients
- may also display signs of lethargy and grogginess for 24-36 hours after vaccination.
Allergies-allergic reaction to post vaccine can include?
- breathing difficultys, restlessness, swelling around the eyes, throat or mouth, or vomiting.
- if this is thought to occur the veterinarian must give the animal an injection of steroid or anti histermine ten to 15 mins before rhe vaccine is administered
this is a blood test that measures the animals own antibody level against a specific disease
where should a vaccine be administered and where not?
- Always check lable for specific instructions
- vaccine should never be given iv
- normal is subQ injections between shoulder blades or intrascapularly
- im injections are normally given in the right or left flank or by lumbar spine
- some are given i.n (intranasally)
where is FVRCP given?
SQ between shoulder blades or RT foreleg
where is feline leukemia given?
subq or i.m into the Left flank
where is rabies given?
SQ or IM into RT flank