ch.7 psych

  1. memory
    the retention of info or expeerience over time as the result of 3 key processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval
  2. shallow (level of processing)
    where sensory of physical features of stimuli are analyzed
  3. intermediate (level of processing)
    stimulus is recognized and labeled
  4. deep (level of processing)
    semantic, meaningful, symbolic; charasteristics are used
  5. sensory memory (types of memory)
    invlovles holding info from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant
  6. short term memory (types of memory)
    limited capacity; info is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds, unless we use strategies to retain it longer
  7. long term memory (types of memory)
    a relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amount of info for a long time
  8. Maintenance reehearsal (way to put info into LTM)
    process of reapeadly verbalizing of thinking about a piece of info
  9. elaborative rehearsal (way to put info into LTM)
    thinking about the meaning of the term to be remebered instead of just repeating it
  10. explicit memory (LTM)
    also called declaritive; the conscious recollection of info (specific facts/info) at least in humans; derived by efforts to recover info
  11. episodic (explicit memory)
    retention of info about the where,when and what of life's happening ; how we remeber life's episodes
  12. semantic (explicit memory)
    knowledge about the world, areas of expertise, general knowledge, things learned in school
  13. implicit memory (LTM)
    non declaritive; memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience w/o a conscious recollection of that experience. no effort
  14. procedural (implicit)
    memory for skills
  15. priming (implicit)
    activiation of info that people already have in storage to help them remeber new info better and faster
  16. classical conditioning (implicit)
    automatic learning of associations between stimuli so that one comes to evoke the same response as the other
  17. how are smell and memory tied?
    smells have a super highway to the brain structure involved in emotion and memory consolidation; allows for quickly learning to associate smells w/ stimuli/memories that are good or bad
  18. recognition
    memory task in which the individual only has to indentify (recognize) learned items, as on multpile choice test
  19. recall
    a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned info, as an essay test
  20. relearning
    learning something over again
  21. encoding failure
    when info was never entered into long-term memory
  22. interference theory (way to forget)
    people forgetnot b/c memories are lost from storage but because other info gets in the way of what they want to remember
  23. decay theory (way to forget)
    when we learn something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, over time this trace disentegrates
  24. motivated forgetting (way to forget)
    when we want to forget something b/c its too painful or anxiety-laden
  25. amnesia
    the loss of memory
  26. anterograde amnesia
    memory disorder that affects the retention of new info and events
  27. retrograde amnesia
    memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events
  28. acrostics
    compostition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words
  29. sq3r
    way to study/attain inof; survey, question, read, review, recite
  30. autobiographical memory
    special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person's recollections of his/her life experiences
  31. flashbulb memory
    memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall w/ more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events
  32. encoding
    the process by which info gets into memory storage
  33. retrieval
    taking info out of storage
  34. levels of processing
    refers to the idea that encoding occurs on a continum
  35. elaboration
    the extensiveness of processing at any given level
  36. imagery
    one of the most powerful ways to make memories distinctive
  37. echoic memory
    an auditory sensory memory retained for up to several seconds
  38. iconic memory
    a visual memory which is retained for only about 1/4 second
  39. eidetic memory
    holds images in memory much longer than iconic memory. ability to memorize pictures to the smallest detail w/ extreme accuracy
  40. george miller
    proposed that 7 elements plus or minus two was the magic number characterizing the limits of short-term memory
  41. chunking
    grouping info into meaningful units that then occupy a single digit of short-term memory
  42. rehearsal
    conscious rapid repetition of info to help us store it in short-term memory
  43. working memory
    • 3 part system that temporarily holds info as people perform cognitive tasks
    • phonological loop
    • visuospatial working memory
    • central executive
  44. phonological loop
    stores speech-based info about the sounds of language
  45. visuospatial working memeory
    stores visual and spatial info
  46. central executive
    integrates info from phonological and visuospatial. coordinates subsytem info and controls attention
  47. declaritive memory
    involves recollection of facts and events
  48. types of declaritive memory
    episodic and semantic
  49. schemas
    clusters of info regarding objects, people and situations, preexsting mental concept or framework that helps us organize and interepret info
  50. intereference
    when retrieval cues do not point effectively to one specific memory
  51. proactive interference
    when info from the past makes it difficult to acquire new info
  52. retroactive interference
    when the acquisiton of new info makes it harder to remember older info
  53. mnemonics
    devices that encode a long series of facts by associating them w/ familiar previously encoded info
  54. method of loc
    associates objects w/ some sequence of places with which an individual is familar
  55. key words
    vivid imagery to important words
  56. acronyms
    creating a word from the first letters of an item to be remembered
  57. alzheimer disease
    a biological  condition that leads to a decline in memory function. caused by a plaque formed on the frontal lobe of the brain
  58. serial position effect
    suggest that the first and last items in a series will be remembered better than the itmes in the middle
  59. primary effect (serial position)
    the items first learned in a series will be remember better
  60. recency effect (serial posistion)
    last items in a series will be remembered better
  61. retrieval cues
    stimuli you use to search for a particular memory
Card Set
ch.7 psych