AP Psych Test Perception

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  1. sensation
    the stimulation of sense organs
  2. perception
    the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input
  3. psychophysics
    the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience
  4. inattentional blindness
    the failure to see fully visible objects or events because our attention is focused elsewhere
  5. absolute threshold
    the minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected by an organism for a specific type of sensory input
  6. just noticeable difference
    the smallest amount of difference in the amount of stimulation that can be detected in a sense
  7. weber's law
    the size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus
  8. signal detection theory
    sensory sensitivity depends on a variety of factors besides the physical intensity of the stimulus
  9. sensory adaptation
    gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
  10. olfactory system
    sense of smell
  11. lens
    transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina
  12. pupil
    opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
  13. retina
    neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye that absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual information to the brain
  14. cones
    specialized receptors that play a key role in daylight and color vision
  15. rods
    specialized receptors that play a key role in night and peripheral vision
  16. fovea
    a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones, where visual acuity is greatest
  17. dark adaptation
    the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to the light in low illumination
  18. light adaptation
    the process in which the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
  19. color blindness
    variety of deficiencies in the ability to distinguish among colors
  20. receptive field of a visual cell
    the retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of a particular cell
  21. optic disk
    a hold in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye
  22. feature detectors
    neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli
  23. subtractive color mixing
    works by removing some wavelenghts of light, leaving less light than was originally there
  24. additive color mixing
    works by superimposing lights, leaving more light in the mixture than in any one light by itself
  25. trichromatic theory
    proposes that the human eye has three types of receptors with differeing sesitivites to different wavelengths
  26. complementary colors
    pairs of colors that can be added together to produce gray tones
  27. afterimage
    a visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed
  28. opponent process theory
    proposes that color is perceived in three channels, where an either or responsive is made to pairs of antagonistic colors
  29. reversible figure
    a drawing compatible with 2 different interpretations that can shift back and forth
  30. perceptual set
    a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
  31. feature analysis
    process in which we detect specific elements in a visual input and assemble these elements into a more complex form
  32. bottom up processing
    progression from individual elements to the whole
  33. top down processing
    progression from the whole to the individual elements
  34. visual illusion
    inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality
  35. phi phenomenon
    illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
  36. distal stimuli
    stimuli that lie in the distance in the world outside us
  37. proximal stimuli
    the stimulus energies that impinge directly on our sensory receptors
  38. perceptual hypothesis
    inference about what distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed
  39. depth perception
    involves our interpretation of visual cues that tell us how near or far away objects are
  40. binocular depth cues
    clues about distance that are obtained by comparing the differing views of two eyes
  41. monocular depth cues
    clues about distance that are obtained from the image in either eye alone
  42. perceptual constancy
    tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of constantly changing sensory input
  43. auditory localization
    locating the source of a sound in space
  44. cochlea
    fluis filled, coiled tunnel that makes up the largest part of the inner ear
  45. basilar membrane
    membrane running the length of the cochlea that holds the actual auditory receptors called hair cells
  46. place theory
    perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
  47. frequency theory
    perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
  48. volley principle
    groups of auditory nerve fibers fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses
  49. gustatory system
    sense of taste
  50. lateral antagonism
    neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells
  51. impossible objects
    objects that can be represented in 2-d figures but can't exist in 3-d space
  52. gate control theory
    holds that incoming pain sensations pass through a gate in the spinal cord that can be opened or closed
  53. kinesthetic system
    sense that monitors the positions of the various parts of the body
  54. vestibular system
    system that provides sense of balance
  55. optic chiasm
    point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
  56. pictorial depth cues
    clues about distance that can be given in a flat picture
  57. subliminal perception
    the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness
  58. parallel processing
    involves simultaneously extracting different kinds of information from the same input
  59. nearsightedness
    close objects are clear but distant objects are blurry
  60. farsightedness
    distant objects are clear but close objects are blurry
  61. retinal disparity
    depth cue which refers to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on your right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different images
  62. convergence
    binocular cue which involves sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects
  63. motion parallax
    monocular deptch cue which involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates
  64. subjective contours
    perception of contours where none actually exist
  65. comparitors
    people, objects, events, and other standards that are used as a baseline for comparitors in judgments
  66. door in the face technique
    making a very large request that is likely to be turned down to increase the chances that people will agree to a smaller request
  67. Hubel and Wiesel
    won the nobel prize for their discovery of feature detector cells in the retina
  68. Wertheimer
    Made use of phi phenomenon to illustrate some of the basic principles of Gestalt psychology
  69. Bartoshuk
    a leading authority on taste research
  70. Melzack and Wall
    Proposed a gate-control theory of pain
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AP Psych Test Perception
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