A division of human beings identified by the possession of traits that are transmissible by descent and that are sufficient to characterize persons possessing these traits as a distinctive human genotype.
Race as defined by DoDD 1350.2
A cultural concept in which a large number of people who share learned or acquired traits and close social interaction regard themselves, and are regarded by others, as constituting a single group on that basis.
Ethnicity as noted by Parrillo
How does race differ from ethnicity?
Members within a racial category may identify with one or more ethnic groups based on cultural or national origin characteristics (e.g.,customs, traditions, language) either retained or passed on through generations.
A person's ancestors’ place of origin; also applies to a person who has the physical, cultural, or linguistic characteristics of anational group.
This encompasses the values, attitudes, customs, beliefs, and habits shared by members of a society; can include physical or material objects as well as the nonmaterial values.
When some members of a cultural group adapt their cultural traits to those of the host society this is known as...
When some members of a cultural group retain their own distinctive traditions and lifestyle while living within the host society.
The five races and two ethnic groups designated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to provide a common language to promote uniformity and comparability of data collected for research.
American Indian or Alaska Native
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
Hispanic or Latino
Non-Hispanic or Latino
Race definitions are intended to be based on biological or genetic references.
Race definitions are not intended to be based on biological or genetic references.
The race of people having origins in any of the original peoples of North and SouthAmerica (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment; can include an Eskimo or Aleut tribe member.
American Indian or Alaska Native
pg 345, Cultural Awareness
pg 493, American Indian or Alaska Native Experience
The race of people having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
The race of people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as “Haitian” or “Negro” can be used in addition to “Black” or “African American.”
The race of people having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
pg 345, Cultural Awareness
pg 399, Asian American Experienc
The race of people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa
pg 345, Cultural Awareness
pg 356, White American Experience
The ethnic group of people of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race; added to the 2000 Census.
Hispanic or Latino
pg 345, Cultural Awareness
pg 419, Hispanic American Experience
What are the three phases of immigration in the White American Experience
1st Phase: 1600 to early 1800
2nd Phase: Era of mass immigration (1820-1880)
3rd Phase: Flood of new immigration from late 19th century to early 20th century
pg 357 - 359, White American Experience
In which phase of White American immigration were the English, Germans, French and Scot-Irish?
1st Phase: 1600 to early 1800.
pg 357 - 358, White American Experience
What ethnic groups were in the White American 1st phase of immigration.
English, Germans, French, Scot-Irish
pg 357 - 358, White American Experience
Describe the Irish immigration group in the era of mass migration of the white american experience
Early Irish Catholic immigrants settled in Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York City, and Boston
Irish immigrants arrived from a country where the English oppressed and stereotyped them as an ―inferior race
The first Irish Americans were primarily peasants, Catholic, and Anti-British.
Irish immigrants were desperately poor, had little skills, little money, few clothes, little education, and little formal religious training
Describe the Scandinavian immigrant in the era of mass immigration of the white american experience.
Scandinavian immigrants settled primarily in the Midwest.
Norwegians favored Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota.
Danes settled primarily in the agricultural regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Kansas
Swedes settled across the entire upper Midwest.
Finns built their new lives on the farms and lumber mills of the upper Midwest, the mines of the West, and the factories of the industrial Northeast. Michigan was the heartland of Finnish America
In addition to farming, the Scandinavians primarily worked as lumberjacks, sailors, dock workers, and craftsmen in the building and machine trades
Because they came from countries with compulsory education, their literacy rate was high, and a significant percentage acquired U.S.citizenship
One million Swedes (1868–1914),
800,000 Norwegians (1825–1925),
300,000 Danes (1820–1920),
230,000 Finns (1890–1924)
forever transformed the culture of the American Midwest
What were the main immigration groups in the era of mass immigration of the white american experience.
In what phase of white american immigration did about 15 million make their way to the United States by 1880.
2nd Phase: Era of mass immigration (1820-1880)
pg 358, White American Experience
In 1820, there were 9.6 million Americans, of whom 20% were black, the remaining population was primarily white Protestants from Northern and Western Europe who came to America in which phase of white american migration.
2nd Phase: Era of mass immigration (1820-1880)
pg 357 White American Experience
What are the most prominent religions in the White American experience?
Christian (Protestant, Catholic, Mormon, Orthodox)
The non-Hispanic White American population in the US identify themselves as 78% Christian (53% Protestant, 22% Catholic, 2% Mormon, 1% Orthodox, 1% Other Christian), 5% Other Religions (to include 2% Jewish), and 16% unaffiliated or unknown (Pew Forum, 2008, p. 40).
What military contributions have been made by White Americans
Who were some prominent White American individuals?
Paul Revere (and William Dawes)
born in Boston, French Huguenot Protestant lineage
midnight ride from Boston to Lexington and Concord to warn American forces of the approach ofthe British troops
Robert E. Lee
maternal great-great-grandfather Robert King Carter, the wealthiest and most politically influential man in mid-18th century Virginia, perhaps in all the colonies
Secretary of State of the United States
former First Lady of the United States
served on the board of the Legal Services Corporation
former First Lady of the State of Arkansas
How does OMB define the term Black or African American
People having origins in any of the Black race groups of Africa to include people who reported their race as Black, African American or Negro or who wrote in entries such as African American, Afro American, Nigerian, or Haitian.
What is the 3/5 Compromise?
During the Constitutional Convention of 1787, it was determined that representation in the House of Representatives would be based on the population of each state. The North did not want to count slaves in the population for fear that the South would have more representatives in the House. Southerners believed that not counting the slaves would put the South at a disadvantage in the House. Thus, the 3/5 Compromise was established, counting each slave as 3/5 of a person.
During the Constitutional Convention of 1787 when it was determined that representation in the House of Representatives would be based on the population of each state, to what did the North and South agree in order to balance representation.
In the Black American experience what are the top ten leading causes of death.
Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome and Nephrosis (kidney disease)
chronic lower respiratory disease
What does Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, and Nephrosis (or kidney disease) have in common with heart disease and cancer?
The are among the top 10 causes of death for the Black/African American.
What do hypertension, infant mortality, and tuberculosis (TB) have in common?
Black/African Americans tend to have a disproportionately high prevalence of these conditions and risk factors.
What three conditions or risk factors are disproportionately high in the Black/African American experience.
In the Black/African American experience what factors contribute to poor health outcomes.
lack of access to health care
Ethnicity is a cultural concept in which a large number of people who share learned or acquired traits and close social interaction regard themselves, and are regarded by others, as constituting a single group on that basis.
Name some conditions encountered by Black/African Americans within inner cities
Young Black males are 10 times more likely to be murdered, especially those living in inner cities.
inner cities are more segregated today than they were 50 years ago
In the inner cities, racial minorities, particularly African Americans and Latinos, reside in a state of extreme racial isolation, a condition that social scientists refer to as hypersegregation.
What is hypersegregation?
A condition in the inner cities where racial minorities reside in a state of extreme racial isolation
Name some prominent Black/African American individuals
appointed to U.S. Court of Appeals, 2nd Circuit.
appointed U.S. Solicitor General
won more Supreme Court cases than any American
Brown v. Board decision in 1954
Mother of the Civil Rights Movement
triggered Montgomery bus boycott of 1955
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr
leader of the Civil Rights Movement
working peacefully to resolve racial conflict
John H. Johnson
Founder of Ebony and Jet
believed Black people needed to see Black success
lawyer and ordained Baptist minister
appointed as Memphis Criminal Court judge
1st Black to serve on FCC (1972-1978)
paving the way for Blacks to own and operate radio and television stations
Prominent and Influential Black Americans in the U.S. Military
only American woman to lead troops on field of battle
served as nurse, cook, laundress to SC Union troops
supported Union cause as spy, scout, & guerilla leader
June 1863, led Union troops in raid on Combahee River
Admiral Robert E. Peary
first to reach the North Pole
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
2nd Black General Officer in Air Force
Father first African-American General Officer in Army
West Point’s 1st African American graduate after Reconstruction.
In 1965, 1st African American in any military branch to become a lieutenant general
served as deputy CINC of U.S. Strike Command
Commander of 13th Air Force in Vietnam
1988 awarded 4th star, advancing to full general
Doris "Dorie" Millermess attendant aboard the U.S.S. West Virginia
Assistant to President for national security affairs
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
earned Purple Heart and Soldier’s Medal in Vietnam
U.S. Secretary of State
Name some education issues for the Asian/Pacific Islander American
Asian Americans less visible in highest ranks of academia
Japanese Americans, lower earnings vs high education
East & South Asian groups, high educational attainment
Native Hawaiians & Pacific Islanders low HS grad rates
What does the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) commission, appointed by President Obama reported in 2011, calls for what?
Strengthening of Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander serving institution programs to increase college graduation rates for AAPI students
What kind of health issues are encountered by the Asian/Pacific Islander American population
Hepatitis B, Asian/Pacific Islander Americans account for over 50% of the 1.5 millian people infected in the US
17.6% of Asian Americans are without health insurance
What cultural influences impact some Asian/Pacific Islander groups.
Cultural differences presented additional hurdles that made it difficult for Korean immigrants to adjust to American mainstream culture, such as American emphasis on individualism. Because Koreans emphasize harmony with order, they tend to be influenced by the opinions of other members of their family or community when making decisions. If they made a decision based ontheir own preferences without considering others, they are likely to be labeled “selfish.”
Language barriers were among the biggest challenges experienced by the first generation of Korean immigrants, communication difficulties similar to those of persons with hearing and speech impairments. Limited English proficiency led to problems such as underemployment.
Name some immigration programs that affected Hispanic Americans immigration.
Immigration and Reform Act of 1986, undocumented alients applied for amnesty
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ended Mexican American war, brought Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California into the U.S. and citizenship to about 75,000 Mexican nationals still living there 1 year afterthe treaty.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882/Immigration Act of 1917led to manual labor shortages in US. U.S. & Mexico encouraged Mexicans to move to border areas with the promise of work. Mexicans left poverty-stricken country for economic opportunities available in the U.S.
Bracero Program of 1942, U.S. couldn't recruit enough American agricultural workers. 5 million braceros (Mexican laborers) filled U.S. jobs for low wages
Operation Wetback, 1954, mass deportations of illegal Mexican workers in response to Mexicans staying beyond work visa provided in the Bracero Program.
Operation Bootstrap, 1945, encouraged U.S. companies to invest in Puerto Rico, emphasis on industry and neglect of agriculture tilted the economy farther away from its heritage of locally owned farms.
La Migracion, voluntary exodus from Puerto Rico to U.S. due to collapse in sugar industry
By U.S. law, migrants who physically reached the U.S. shoreline were permitted to stay so Cubans escaping
Immigration Act of 1965, abolished national quota; barred racial consideration in visas, 120,000 limit from Western Hemisphere, 20,000 from any one country. compromise to those who feared increase in Latin American immigration.
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, control illegal immigrants, especially from Mexico. legalize undocumented migrants who entered before 1982, amnesty for those who worked 90 days in agriculture before May 1986
California‘s Proposition 187 (1994),restricted undocumented immigrants‘ access to public services, required public employees to report undocumented immigrants, overturned in 1999, supporters blamed undocumented Mexicans for California‘s economic woes
Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (1997),legal resident status to many Cubans and Central Americans, granted permanent resident green cards to 150,000 Nicaraguans & 5,000 Cubans, allowed 250,000+ Salvadorans, Guatemalans, East Europeans to stay and apply for suspension of deportation under more lenient rules
Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (Support our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act and House Bill 2162), criminalizes illegal immigration by defining it as trespassing, allows local law enforcement agencies to question people they suspect of being undocumented (profiling)
What are the religious characteristics of the Hispanic American population.
religion has traditionally played a significant role in daily activity
90+% of the Spanish-speaking world is Roman Catholic
68% of Hispanics self identified as Roman Catholics
15% born-again or evangelical Protestants
10% do not identify with any religion
What are the Hispanic demographics in the U.S. military?
10.6% of Active Duty = 14.4% Navy, 12.5% Marines, 11% Army, 10.7% Coast Guard, 5.1% Air Force
highest percentage of Hispanic/Latino enlisted members in Navy: 16%
Marine Corp 13.1%.
highest percentage of Hispanic/Latino officers: 6.5% Marine Corps
Name some Prominent and Influential Figures in Mainstream America and the Military
Oscar de la Renta: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, fashion designer, defined standards of elegant dressing, awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America.
Ellen Ochoa: 1st Hispanic American woman in space, co-invented three patents for optical engineering systems
Sonia Sotomayor: Associate Justice to the Supreme Court, lecturer at Columbia University Law School, adjunct professor at NYU Law School
Carlos Santana: learned to play the guitar at age 8, phenomenal comeback on pop charts in 90s, received many accolades for his work
Rebecca Lobo: basketball analyst, ESPN reporter; on gold medal winning U.S. women‘s basketball team 1996 Olympics in ATL, 7-year basketball career in WNBA. one of the best-known female basketball players of all time
Lieutenant Colonel Juan Seguin: devoted life to help spread democracy into new territories acquired by U.S.
How are Arab Americans identified
not by race, but specific cultural, linguistic, and ethnic identification, including country of origin and regional traditions
People of Arab descent: Originating from North Africa and the Middle East – the so-called Arab World, in which Arabic is the prevalent language
People of non-Arab descent: originating from Turkey, Iran (historically known as Persia), and Afghanistan. This group is referred to as belonging to the West Asian Arab American category.
Per the OMB, with what race should the Arab American/West Asian identify.
Racially speaking, Arab Americans are Whites, as per the Office of Management andBudget definition of White.
All Arab Americans are of Arab descent or identify with the Arab-speaking world.
a. Historically, Arab Americans from West Asia do not have an Arab origin and do not have Arabic as their native language. This group includes: Turkish Americans–originally speaking Turkish; Iranian Americans–originally speaking Farsi; andAfghans–originally speaking Pashto or Dari.
How are Arab Americans from Turkey, Iran (fka Persia) and Afghanistan defined and what language does each speak?
Afghan: Pashto or Dari
What are the common themes that characterize how Arab Americans contributed to the American social and economic system.
The spirit of entrepreneurship.
Family, Arab American success is support of the family and the ability of families to work together.
The importance placed on education
The American Federation of Ramallah assists people of Palestinian heritage to adjust to life in the U.S. This organization provides financial assistance, guaranteed bank loans, and expertise to newcomers wanting to start their own small businesses.
Nationally, West Asian/Arab American households have a higher than average median income
What role does family play in the Arab/West Asian American culture
family-more important than individual, more influential than nationality
Loyalty to family takes precedence over personal needs
People draw their identity from their role in family
extended family help one another immigrate
preserve customs, language, and values
Dignity, honor, and reputation are of huge importance
honor, shame viewed as whole (against entire family)
social class, family background major determining factors of personal status
extended family in same neighborhood or house
family provides help with problems, advice, protection
Prominent and Influential Arab Americans in the U.S. military
General John Abizaid: Army 4-star general, retired 2007, 34 years; West Point; US CentCom, Distinguished Chair of the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, Distinguished Fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, Preventative Defense Project at Stanford and Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government.
General George Joulwan: Army, retired 1997, foreign policy experience. Commander in Chief, United States European Command (CINCEUR); 11th Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). 20+ successful operations in the Balkans, Africa, and the Middle East; established 1st strategic policy for U.S. military engagement in Africa, orchestrated the State Partnership program linking American reserve forces from 23 states with the former non-NATO countries and newly independent democracies of Europe and the former Soviet Union.
Lieutenant Colonel Richard Haddad: Marine Corps, retired 2008, U.S. Naval Academy, 7 years active duty, rest Reserve, Operation Just Cause, Operation Desert Shield/Storm, counterinsurgency operations in Central America, drug war in South America
What qualifies a person as being Jewish American
born of two Jewish parents
born of one Jewish parent who is raised in Judaism
adheres to the Jewish religion, lives by traditions, says of himself "I am a Jew"
convert to Judaism in any manner that they find justified and in a manner regarded as legitimate by any branch of Judaism
How does the OMB expect a Jewish American to be classified.
Race = Other, write in "Jewish"
Religious Affiliation = Jewish
What marked and when was the beginning of the dispersal of Jews?
135 C.E., the Romans officially banned Judaism, which marked the beginning of the diaspora, or the dispersal of Jews.
What is the term for the Jewish New Year; it is the first of the High Holy Days, which marks the beginning of a ten-day period of penitence and spiritual renewal.
Rosh Hashanah (Rosh-Ha-sha-nah)
Day of Atonement. The second most holy dayin the Jewish year, it is marked by fasting and prayer as the Jew seeks forgiveness from both God and man.
Yom Kippur (Yom Kee-poor)
Feast of Booths (Tabernacles). It commemorates the 40-year wandering of the Israelites in the desert on the way to the Promised Land. It expresses thanksgiving for the fall harvest. The Pilgrim fathers used it as amodel for the American observance of Thanksgiving.
The rejoicing in the Torah celebrates the conclusion of the public reading of the Pentateuch and its beginning anew. It affirms that the study of God’s word is an unending process. This concludes the Sukkot festival.
Simchat Torah (Sim-chat Torah)
Festival of Lights. Eight-day festival celebrating the rededication of the temple to the service of God (165 BCE). It commemorates the Maccabean victory over Antiochus, who sought to suppress freedom of worship.
Feast of Lots. Marks the salvation of the Jews of ancient Persia from Hamam’s plot to exterminate them through the intervention of Queen Esther.
Passover. Celebrates Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage. During this eight-day festival, matsch (unleavened bread) and bitterherbs are eaten.
Festival of Weeks. Also called the Feast of the First Ripe Fruits to celebrate the success of the spring crops after seven weeks of laboring and waiting.
Savuot (Week of Weeks)
Jewish Celebrations and Holidays:
Shabbat (The Sabbath): most holy day in Jewish year; seventh day of week starting sundown Friday ending sundown Saturday;day of holiness, rest, and rejoicing.
Rosh Hashanah (Rosh-Ha-sha-nah): Jewish New Year; 1st High Holy Day, begins 10 days of penitence & spiritual renewal.
Yom Kippur (Yom Kee-poor): Day of Atonement. 2nd most holy day, marked by fasting, prayer, Jew seeks forgiveness from both God and man.
Sukkot (Soo-kot): Feast of Booths (Tabernacles). Commemorates 40-year wandering of the Israelites in the desert on the way to the Promised Land, expresses thanksgiving for fall harvest. Pilgrim fathers used as model for Thanksgiving.
Simchat Torah (Sim-chat Torah): Rejoicing in the Torah celebrates the conclusion of the public reading of the Pentateuch and its beginning anew, affirms the study of God’s word as an unending process, concludes Sukkot
Chanukah (Hon-i-ka): Festival of Lights. 8-day festival celebrating the rededication of the temple to the service of God (165 BCE), commemorates Maccabean victory over Antiochus, who sought to suppress freedom of worship.
Purim (Poo-rim): Feast of Lots. Marks salvation of Jews of ancient Persia from Hamam’s plot to exterminate them through the intervention of Queen Esther.
Pesach (Peh-sach): Passover. Celebrates Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage. 8-day festival, matsch (unleavened bread) and bitter herbs are eaten.
Savuot (Week of Weeks): Festival of Weeks. Also called Feast of the First Ripe Fruits, celebrates success of spring crops after 7 weeks laboring & waiting.
What are the three threats to cultural survival of Judaism
Low population growth.
Meant to encourage Native Americans to voluntarily give up lands east of the Mississippi River. Process of removal was one of misdeeds and corruption, led to forced removal of several Native American groups. 15,000 individuals placed in detention camps; removal process hastened further seizure of their land and further disregard for Native American culture by the U.S. government. By 1837, Jackson administration removed 46,000 Native American
Indian Removal Act (I.R.A) of 1830
Established a census allotting tribal lands to individual American Indians. Purportedly to protect American Indian property rights, particularly during the land rushes of the 1890s, but in many instances, the results were vastly different. The land allotted to the American Indians included desert or near-desert lands unsuitable for farming. In addition, the techniques of self-sufficient farming were much different from their tribal way of life. Many did not want to take up agriculture, and those who did want to farm could not afford the tools, animals, seeds, and other supplies necessary to get started.
Dawes Act/ General Allotment Act of 1887
Reaffirmed allotment of tribal lands on Indian reservations, ended tribal sovereignty in the territories; weakened/dissolved Indian Territory tribal governments by abolishing tribal courts and subjecting all persons in the territory to federal law; meant that there could be no enforcement of tribal laws and any tribal legislation passed after 1898 had to be approved by the president of the United States.
Curtis Act of 1898
Gave U.S. citizenship to American Indians/Alaskan Naties, including the right to vote in national elections; did not provide full protection under the Bill of Rights to those living under tribal governments. Several nations, including the Hopi and the Iroquois, declined U.S. citizenship in favor of retaining sovereign nationhood; not all Native Americans viewed citizenship as something wonderful. Their experiences in dealing with Washington and the states did not give them much confidence in the government or desire to participate in it.
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
Reinstituted tribal government on reservations; ended land allotment, provided for the strengthening of tribal governments and the restoration of tribal lands and powers
also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Granted the title to 16 million hectares of land to be divided among some 220 native villages and 12 regional corporations. Settled claim to aboriginal lands on which they had lived for generations.
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971
Declared it a national policy to elevate the health status of American Indian/Alaskan Native Americans to a level at parity with the general U.S. population.
Indian Health Care Improvement Act of 1976
Legislation impacting American Indian/Alaskan Native Americans
Indian Removal Act (I.R.A) of 1830: forcible removal
Dawes Act/ General Allotment Act of 1887: census, allotted land to AI/AN, unsustainable for tribal life
Curtis Act of 1898: reenforced reservation, abolished tribal government
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924: extended option of US citizenship, no Bill of Rights coverage on reservation; recognized tribal government
Indian Reorganization Act (or Wheeler-Howard Act) of 1934: strengthened tribal government, ended land allotment
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971: 16mil hectares of land divided & titled to 220 native villages, 12 regional corporations
Indian Health Care Improvement Act of 1976: made healthcare a national priority
What are the three main concepts of American Indian/Alaskan Native religious traditions
the world of spirits
the circle of life
The religious tradition where spirits are worshipped, feared, and respected. They are thought to inhabit trees, plants, birds, and other animals. Cosmic phenomena are also considered spirits, including the sun, the moon, thunder, lightning, the four winds, and the thunderbirds. Guardian spirits (a helpful, personal spirit) were recognized as possessing extraordinary individual spiritual power.
World of spirits
Religious tradition where the earth and land is believed to be a living, breathing, spiritual entity to whom thanksgiving and reverence is due. Mother Earth is seen as a sacred and inalienable mother.
The religious tradition that everyone is related. Everything has a purpose and is intentional. Nothing is an accident. All of life travels within a circle. Everything is connected within that circle and eventually comes back around. Also called the medicine wheel.
The circle of life
What conflicts face cultural preservation
cultural preservation vs relocation to find work
traditions vs new opportunities
Limited employment possibilities
lack of support services such as child care and transportation
What are the American Indian/Alaskan Native American demographics in the military
20,000 are serving in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force
overrepresentationof AI/ANs in low-status positions
underrepresentation in high-status positions
2.1% of the military is American Indian and Alaska Native
Prominent and Influential American Indians and Alaska Natives in the U.S. Military
Army PFC Lori Ann Piestewa ( - 2003): Operation Iraqi Freedom, 1st American Indian/Alaska Native woman ever killed in combat, member of Hopi Tribe, lived near Navajo Reservation community of Tuba City in northern Arizona
General Ely Samuel Parker – Seneca (Iroquois), trained attorney, self-taught engineer, height of military career - wrote terms of surrender for General Robert E. Lee to sign at Appomattox Court House 9 April 1865. appointed 1st non-Caucasian commissioner of Indian Affairs
A person's national origin is
C. their or their ancestor's place of origin.
Which ethnic group IS NOT classified within the racial category of White by the Office of Management and Budget?
pg 345, 356
Which group of European immigrations established the first statements in Jamestown, VA?
Which Supreme Court decision known as "Separate but equal" upheld racial segregation and became the rule for the southern and border states?
C. Plessy v. Ferguson, Maryland
Which of the following is considered the largest Black protestant religion denomination?
D. Church of God in Christ
4What is the most significant health issue facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI)?
C. Hepatitus B
Which Armed Force's component has the best Asian American retention rates?
A. Air Force
Which Hispanic or Latino American culture group has the highest median family income in the U.S.?
Too often, discussion about the educational achievement of Hispanics focuses on
D. All of the above.
Which alternative describes a common theme that characterizes how Arab Americans contribute to the American social and economic systems?
C. The spirit of entrepreneurship
What are the three primary religious holidays celebrated by Arab American Muslims?
B. Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha
Which Jewish tradition is considered fulfillment of one of God's purposes for human beings?
What is the main issue affecting Jewish Americans today?
What geographical areas have the highest American Indian or Alaska Native poverty rate in the U.S.?
A. Northern Plains, the Southwest, Oklahoma, and Alaska
Which American Indian and Alaska Native religious tradition is also known as the "Medicine Wheel"?
A. Circle of Life
DEOMI Test5. Questions from Review sheet and some of the chapters. More questions are needed.